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.. COMMENT: Copyright (c) 2015 University of York.
.. COMMENT: Hesham ALMatary <>

Blackfin Specific Information

This chapter discusses the Blackfin architecture dependencies in this port of

**Architecture Documents**

For information on the Blackfin architecture, refer to the following documents
available from Analog Devices.


- *"ADSP-BF533 Blackfin Processor Hardware Reference."*

CPU Model Dependent Features

CPUs of the Blackfin 53X only differ in the peripherals and thus in the device
drivers. This port does not yet support the 56X dual core variants.

Count Leading Zeroes Instruction

The Blackfin CPU has the BITTST instruction which could be used to speed up the
find first bit operation.  The use of this instruction should significantly
speed up the scheduling associated with a thread blocking.

Calling Conventions

This section is heavily based on content taken from the Blackfin uCLinux
documentation wiki which is edited by Analog Devices and Arcturus Networks.

Processor Background

The Blackfin architecture supports a simple call and return mechanism.  A
subroutine is invoked via the call (``call``) instruction.  This instruction
saves the return address in the ``RETS`` register and transfers the execution
to the given address.

It is the called funcions responsability to use the link instruction to reserve
space on the stack for the local variables.  Returning from a subroutine is
done by using the RTS (``RTS``) instruction which loads the PC with the adress
stored in RETS.

It is is important to note that the ``call`` instruction does not automatically
save or restore any registers.  It is the responsibility of the high-level
language compiler to define the register preservation and usage convention.

Register Usage

A called function may clobber all registers, except RETS, R4-R7, P3-P5, FP and
SP.  It may also modify the first 12 bytes in the caller's stack frame which is
used as an argument area for the first three arguments (which are passed in
R0...R3 but may be placed on the stack by the called function).

Parameter Passing

RTEMS assumes that the Blackfin GCC calling convention is followed.  The first
three parameters are stored in registers R0, R1, and R2.  All other parameters
are put pushed on the stack.  The result is returned through register R0.

Memory Model

The Blackfin family architecutre support a single unified 4 GB byte address
space using 32-bit addresses. It maps all resources like internal and external
memory and IO registers into separate sections of this common address space.

The Blackfin architcture supports some form of memory protection via its Memory
Management Unit. Since the Blackfin port runs in supervisior mode this memory
protection mechanisms are not used.

Interrupt Processing

Discussed in this chapter are the Blackfin's interrupt response and control
mechanisms as they pertain to RTEMS. The Blackfin architecture support 16 kinds
of interrupts broken down into Core and general-purpose interrupts.

Vectoring of an Interrupt Handler

RTEMS maps levels 0 -15 directly to Blackfins event vectors EVT0 - EVT15. Since
EVT0 - EVT6 are core events and it is suggested to use EVT15 and EVT15 for
Software interrupts, 7 Interrupts (EVT7-EVT13) are left for periferical use.

When installing an RTEMS interrupt handler RTEMS installs a generic Interrupt
Handler which saves some context and enables nested interrupt servicing and
then vectors to the users interrupt handler.

Disabling of Interrupts by RTEMS

During interrupt disable critical sections, RTEMS disables interrupts to level
four (4) before the execution of this section and restores them to the previous
level upon completion of the section. RTEMS uses the instructions CLI and STI
to enable and disable Interrupts. Emulation, Reset, NMI and Exception
Interrupts are never disabled.

Interrupt Stack

The Blackfin Architecture works with two different kind of stacks, User and
Supervisor Stack. Since RTEMS and its Application run in supervisor mode, all
interrupts will use the interrupted tasks stack for execution.

Default Fatal Error Processing

The default fatal error handler for the Blackfin performs the following

- disables processor interrupts,

- places the error code in *r0*, and

- executes an infinite loop (``while(0);`` to
  simulate a halt processor instruction.

Symmetric Multiprocessing

SMP is not supported.

Thread-Local Storage

Thread-local storage is not implemented.

Board Support Packages

System Reset