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authorChris Johns <chrisj@rtems.org>2016-11-03 16:58:08 +1100
committerChris Johns <chrisj@rtems.org>2016-11-03 16:58:08 +1100
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+.. comment SPDX-License-Identifier: CC-BY-SA-4.0
+
+.. COMMENT: Copyright (c) 2015 University of York.
+.. COMMENT: Hesham ALMatary <hmka501@york.ac.uk>
+
+Blackfin Specific Information
+#############################
+
+This chapter discusses the Blackfin architecture dependencies in this port of
+RTEMS.
+
+**Architecture Documents**
+
+For information on the Blackfin architecture, refer to the following documents
+available from Analog Devices.
+
+TBD
+
+- *"ADSP-BF533 Blackfin Processor Hardware Reference."* http://www.analog.com/UploadedFiles/Associated_Docs/892485982bf533_hwr.pdf
+
+CPU Model Dependent Features
+============================
+
+CPUs of the Blackfin 53X only differ in the peripherals and thus in the device
+drivers. This port does not yet support the 56X dual core variants.
+
+Count Leading Zeroes Instruction
+--------------------------------
+
+The Blackfin CPU has the BITTST instruction which could be used to speed up the
+find first bit operation. The use of this instruction should significantly
+speed up the scheduling associated with a thread blocking.
+
+Calling Conventions
+===================
+
+This section is heavily based on content taken from the Blackfin uCLinux
+documentation wiki which is edited by Analog Devices and Arcturus Networks.
+http://docs.blackfin.uclinux.org/
+
+Processor Background
+--------------------
+
+The Blackfin architecture supports a simple call and return mechanism. A
+subroutine is invoked via the call (``call``) instruction. This instruction
+saves the return address in the ``RETS`` register and transfers the execution
+to the given address.
+
+It is the called funcions responsability to use the link instruction to reserve
+space on the stack for the local variables. Returning from a subroutine is
+done by using the RTS (``RTS``) instruction which loads the PC with the adress
+stored in RETS.
+
+It is is important to note that the ``call`` instruction does not automatically
+save or restore any registers. It is the responsibility of the high-level
+language compiler to define the register preservation and usage convention.
+
+Register Usage
+--------------
+
+A called function may clobber all registers, except RETS, R4-R7, P3-P5, FP and
+SP. It may also modify the first 12 bytes in the caller's stack frame which is
+used as an argument area for the first three arguments (which are passed in
+R0...R3 but may be placed on the stack by the called function).
+
+Parameter Passing
+-----------------
+
+RTEMS assumes that the Blackfin GCC calling convention is followed. The first
+three parameters are stored in registers R0, R1, and R2. All other parameters
+are put pushed on the stack. The result is returned through register R0.
+
+Memory Model
+============
+
+The Blackfin family architecutre support a single unified 4 GB byte address
+space using 32-bit addresses. It maps all resources like internal and external
+memory and IO registers into separate sections of this common address space.
+
+The Blackfin architcture supports some form of memory protection via its Memory
+Management Unit. Since the Blackfin port runs in supervisior mode this memory
+protection mechanisms are not used.
+
+Interrupt Processing
+====================
+
+Discussed in this chapter are the Blackfin's interrupt response and control
+mechanisms as they pertain to RTEMS. The Blackfin architecture support 16 kinds
+of interrupts broken down into Core and general-purpose interrupts.
+
+Vectoring of an Interrupt Handler
+---------------------------------
+
+RTEMS maps levels 0 -15 directly to Blackfins event vectors EVT0 - EVT15. Since
+EVT0 - EVT6 are core events and it is suggested to use EVT15 and EVT15 for
+Software interrupts, 7 Interrupts (EVT7-EVT13) are left for periferical use.
+
+When installing an RTEMS interrupt handler RTEMS installs a generic Interrupt
+Handler which saves some context and enables nested interrupt servicing and
+then vectors to the users interrupt handler.
+
+Disabling of Interrupts by RTEMS
+--------------------------------
+
+During interrupt disable critical sections, RTEMS disables interrupts to level
+four (4) before the execution of this section and restores them to the previous
+level upon completion of the section. RTEMS uses the instructions CLI and STI
+to enable and disable Interrupts. Emulation, Reset, NMI and Exception
+Interrupts are never disabled.
+
+Interrupt Stack
+---------------
+
+The Blackfin Architecture works with two different kind of stacks, User and
+Supervisor Stack. Since RTEMS and its Application run in supervisor mode, all
+interrupts will use the interrupted tasks stack for execution.
+
+Default Fatal Error Processing
+==============================
+
+The default fatal error handler for the Blackfin performs the following
+actions:
+
+- disables processor interrupts,
+
+- places the error code in *r0*, and
+
+- executes an infinite loop (``while(0);`` to
+ simulate a halt processor instruction.
+
+Symmetric Multiprocessing
+=========================
+
+SMP is not supported.
+
+Thread-Local Storage
+====================
+
+Thread-local storage is not implemented.
+
+Board Support Packages
+======================
+
+System Reset
+------------
+
+TBD