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+SPARC Specific Information
+##########################
+
+The Real Time Executive for Multiprocessor Systems
+(RTEMS) is designed to be portable across multiple processor
+architectures. However, the nature of real-time systems makes
+it essential that the application designer understand certain
+processor dependent implementation details. These processor
+dependencies include calling convention, board support package
+issues, interrupt processing, exact RTEMS memory requirements,
+performance data, header files, and the assembly language
+interface to the executive.
+
+This document discusses the SPARC architecture dependencies in this
+port of RTEMS. This architectural port is for SPARC Version 7 and
+8. Implementations for SPARC V9 are in the sparc64 target.
+
+It is highly recommended that the SPARC RTEMS
+application developer obtain and become familiar with the
+documentation for the processor being used as well as the
+specification for the revision of the SPARC architecture which
+corresponds to that processor.
+
+**SPARC Architecture Documents**
+
+For information on the SPARC architecture, refer to
+the following documents available from SPARC International, Inc.
+(http://www.sparc.com):
+
+- SPARC Standard Version 7.
+
+- SPARC Standard Version 8.
+
+**ERC32 Specific Information**
+
+The European Space Agency’s ERC32 is a three chip
+computing core implementing a SPARC V7 processor and associated
+support circuitry for embedded space applications. The integer
+and floating-point units (90C601E & 90C602E) are based on the
+Cypress 7C601 and 7C602, with additional error-detection and
+recovery functions. The memory controller (MEC) implements
+system support functions such as address decoding, memory
+interface, DMA interface, UARTs, timers, interrupt control,
+write-protection, memory reconfiguration and error-detection.
+The core is designed to work at 25MHz, but using space qualified
+memories limits the system frequency to around 15 MHz, resulting
+in a performance of 10 MIPS and 2 MFLOPS.
+
+Information on the ERC32 and a number of development
+support tools, such as the SPARC Instruction Simulator (SIS),
+are freely available on the Internet. The following documents
+and SIS are available via anonymous ftp or pointing your web
+browser at ftp://ftp.estec.esa.nl/pub/ws/wsd/erc32.
+
+- ERC32 System Design Document
+
+- MEC Device Specification
+
+Additionally, the SPARC RISC User’s Guide from Matra
+MHS documents the functionality of the integer and floating
+point units including the instruction set information. To
+obtain this document as well as ERC32 components and VHDL models
+contact:
+.. code:: c
+
+ Matra MHS SA
+ 3 Avenue du Centre, BP 309,
+ 78054 St-Quentin-en-Yvelines,
+ Cedex, France
+ VOICE: +31-1-30607087
+ FAX: +31-1-30640693
+
+Amar Guennon (amar.guennon@matramhs.fr) is familiar with the ERC32.
+
+.. COMMENT: COPYRIGHT (c) 1988-2002.
+
+.. COMMENT: On-Line Applications Research Corporation (OAR).
+
+.. COMMENT: All rights reserved.
+
+CPU Model Dependent Features
+============================
+
+Microprocessors are generally classified into
+families with a variety of CPU models or implementations within
+that family. Within a processor family, there is a high level
+of binary compatibility. This family may be based on either an
+architectural specification or on maintaining compatibility with
+a popular processor. Recent microprocessor families such as the
+SPARC or PowerPC are based on an architectural specification
+which is independent or any particular CPU model or
+implementation. Older families such as the M68xxx and the iX86
+evolved as the manufacturer strived to produce higher
+performance processor models which maintained binary
+compatibility with older models.
+
+RTEMS takes advantage of the similarity of the
+various models within a CPU family. Although the models do vary
+in significant ways, the high level of compatibility makes it
+possible to share the bulk of the CPU dependent executive code
+across the entire family.
+
+CPU Model Feature Flags
+-----------------------
+
+Each processor family supported by RTEMS has a
+list of features which vary between CPU models
+within a family. For example, the most common model dependent
+feature regardless of CPU family is the presence or absence of a
+floating point unit or coprocessor. When defining the list of
+features present on a particular CPU model, one simply notes
+that floating point hardware is or is not present and defines a
+single constant appropriately. Conditional compilation is
+utilized to include the appropriate source code for this CPU
+model’s feature set. It is important to note that this means
+that RTEMS is thus compiled using the appropriate feature set
+and compilation flags optimal for this CPU model used. The
+alternative would be to generate a binary which would execute on
+all family members using only the features which were always
+present.
+
+This section presents the set of features which vary
+across SPARC implementations and are of importance to RTEMS.
+The set of CPU model feature macros are defined in the file
+cpukit/score/cpu/sparc/sparc.h based upon the particular CPU
+model defined on the compilation command line.
+
+CPU Model Name
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The macro CPU_MODEL_NAME is a string which designates
+the name of this CPU model. For example, for the European Space
+Agency’s ERC32 SPARC model, this macro is set to the string
+"erc32".
+
+Floating Point Unit
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The macro SPARC_HAS_FPU is set to 1 to indicate that
+this CPU model has a hardware floating point unit and 0
+otherwise.
+
+Bitscan Instruction
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The macro SPARC_HAS_BITSCAN is set to 1 to indicate
+that this CPU model has the bitscan instruction. For example,
+this instruction is supported by the Fujitsu SPARClite family.
+
+Number of Register Windows
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The macro SPARC_NUMBER_OF_REGISTER_WINDOWS is set to
+indicate the number of register window sets implemented by this
+CPU model. The SPARC architecture allows a for a maximum of
+thirty-two register window sets although most implementations
+only include eight.
+
+Low Power Mode
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The macro SPARC_HAS_LOW_POWER_MODE is set to one to
+indicate that this CPU model has a low power mode. If low power
+is enabled, then there must be CPU model specific implementation
+of the IDLE task in cpukit/score/cpu/sparc/cpu.c. The low
+power mode IDLE task should be of the form:
+.. code:: c
+
+ while ( TRUE ) {
+ enter low power mode
+ }
+
+The code required to enter low power mode is CPU model specific.
+
+CPU Model Implementation Notes
+------------------------------
+
+The ERC32 is a custom SPARC V7 implementation based on the Cypress 601/602
+chipset. This CPU has a number of on-board peripherals and was developed by
+the European Space Agency to target space applications. RTEMS currently
+provides support for the following peripherals:
+
+- UART Channels A and B
+
+- General Purpose Timer
+
+- Real Time Clock
+
+- Watchdog Timer (so it can be disabled)
+
+- Control Register (so powerdown mode can be enabled)
+
+- Memory Control Register
+
+- Interrupt Control
+
+The General Purpose Timer and Real Time Clock Timer provided with the ERC32
+share the Timer Control Register. Because the Timer Control Register is write
+only, we must mirror it in software and insure that writes to one timer do not
+alter the current settings and status of the other timer. Routines are
+provided in erc32.h which promote the view that the two timers are completely
+independent. By exclusively using these routines to access the Timer Control
+Register, the application can view the system as having a General Purpose
+Timer Control Register and a Real Time Clock Timer Control Register
+rather than the single shared value.
+
+The RTEMS Idle thread take advantage of the low power mode provided by the
+ERC32. Low power mode is entered during idle loops and is enabled at
+initialization time.
+
+.. COMMENT: COPYRIGHT (c) 1988-2002.
+
+.. COMMENT: On-Line Applications Research Corporation (OAR).
+
+.. COMMENT: All rights reserved.
+
+Calling Conventions
+===================
+
+Each high-level language compiler generates subroutine entry and exit code
+based upon a set of rules known as the application binary interface (ABI)
+calling convention. These rules address the following issues:
+
+- register preservation and usage
+
+- parameter passing
+
+- call and return mechanism
+
+An ABI calling convention is of importance when interfacing to subroutines
+written in another language either assembly or high-level. It determines also
+the set of registers to be saved or restored during a context switch and
+interrupt processing.
+
+The ABI relevant for RTEMS on SPARC is defined by SYSTEM V APPLICATION BINARY
+INTERFACE, SPARC Processor Supplement, Third Edition.
+
+Programming Model
+-----------------
+
+This section discusses the programming model for the
+SPARC architecture.
+
+Non-Floating Point Registers
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The SPARC architecture defines thirty-two
+non-floating point registers directly visible to the programmer.
+These are divided into four sets:
+
+- input registers
+
+- local registers
+
+- output registers
+
+- global registers
+
+Each register is referred to by either two or three
+names in the SPARC reference manuals. First, the registers are
+referred to as r0 through r31 or with the alternate notation
+r[0] through r[31]. Second, each register is a member of one of
+the four sets listed above. Finally, some registers have an
+architecturally defined role in the programming model which
+provides an alternate name. The following table describes the
+mapping between the 32 registers and the register sets:
+
+.. code:: c
+
+ +-----------------+----------------+------------------+
+ | Register Number | Register Names | Description |
+ +-----------------+----------------+------------------+
+ | 0 - 7 | g0 - g7 | Global Registers |
+ +-----------------+----------------+------------------+
+ | 8 - 15 | o0 - o7 | Output Registers |
+ +-----------------+----------------+------------------+
+ | 16 - 23 | l0 - l7 | Local Registers |
+ +-----------------+----------------+------------------+
+ | 24 - 31 | i0 - i7 | Input Registers |
+ +-----------------+----------------+------------------+
+
+As mentioned above, some of the registers serve
+defined roles in the programming model. The following table
+describes the role of each of these registers:
+
+.. code:: c
+
+ +---------------+----------------+----------------------+
+ | Register Name | Alternate Name | Description |
+ +---------------+----------------+----------------------+
+ | g0 | na | reads return 0 |
+ | | | writes are ignored |
+ +---------------+----------------+----------------------+
+ | o6 | sp | stack pointer |
+ +---------------+----------------+----------------------+
+ | i6 | fp | frame pointer |
+ +---------------+----------------+----------------------+
+ | i7 | na | return address |
+ +---------------+----------------+----------------------+
+
+The registers g2 through g4 are reserved for applications. GCC uses them as
+volatile registers by default. So they are treated like volatile registers in
+RTEMS as well.
+
+The register g6 is reserved for the operating system and contains the address
+of the per-CPU control block of the current processor. This register is
+initialized during system start and then remains unchanged. It is not
+saved/restored by the context switch or interrupt processing code.
+
+The register g7 is reserved for the operating system and contains the thread
+pointer used for thread-local storage (TLS) as mandated by the SPARC ABI.
+
+Floating Point Registers
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The SPARC V7 architecture includes thirty-two,
+thirty-two bit registers. These registers may be viewed as
+follows:
+
+- 32 single precision floating point or integer registers
+ (f0, f1, ... f31)
+
+- 16 double precision floating point registers (f0, f2,
+ f4, ... f30)
+
+- 8 extended precision floating point registers (f0, f4,
+ f8, ... f28)
+
+The floating point status register (FSR) specifies
+the behavior of the floating point unit for rounding, contains
+its condition codes, version specification, and trap information.
+
+According to the ABI all floating point registers and the floating point status
+register (FSR) are volatile. Thus the floating point context of a thread is the
+empty set. The rounding direction is a system global state and must not be
+modified by threads.
+
+A queue of the floating point instructions which have
+started execution but not yet completed is maintained. This
+queue is needed to support the multiple cycle nature of floating
+point operations and to aid floating point exception trap
+handlers. Once a floating point exception has been encountered,
+the queue is frozen until it is emptied by the trap handler.
+The floating point queue is loaded by launching instructions.
+It is emptied normally when the floating point completes all
+outstanding instructions and by floating point exception
+handlers with the store double floating point queue (stdfq)
+instruction.
+
+Special Registers
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The SPARC architecture includes two special registers
+which are critical to the programming model: the Processor State
+Register (psr) and the Window Invalid Mask (wim). The psr
+contains the condition codes, processor interrupt level, trap
+enable bit, supervisor mode and previous supervisor mode bits,
+version information, floating point unit and coprocessor enable
+bits, and the current window pointer (cwp). The cwp field of
+the psr and wim register are used to manage the register windows
+in the SPARC architecture. The register windows are discussed
+in more detail below.
+
+Register Windows
+----------------
+
+The SPARC architecture includes the concept of
+register windows. An overly simplistic way to think of these
+windows is to imagine them as being an infinite supply of
+"fresh" register sets available for each subroutine to use. In
+reality, they are much more complicated.
+
+The save instruction is used to obtain a new register
+window. This instruction decrements the current window pointer,
+thus providing a new set of registers for use. This register
+set includes eight fresh local registers for use exclusively by
+this subroutine. When done with a register set, the restore
+instruction increments the current window pointer and the
+previous register set is once again available.
+
+The two primary issues complicating the use of
+register windows are that (1) the set of register windows is
+finite, and (2) some registers are shared between adjacent
+registers windows.
+
+Because the set of register windows is finite, it is
+possible to execute enough save instructions without
+corresponding restore’s to consume all of the register windows.
+This is easily accomplished in a high level language because
+each subroutine typically performs a save instruction upon
+entry. Thus having a subroutine call depth greater than the
+number of register windows will result in a window overflow
+condition. The window overflow condition generates a trap which
+must be handled in software. The window overflow trap handler
+is responsible for saving the contents of the oldest register
+window on the program stack.
+
+Similarly, the subroutines will eventually complete
+and begin to perform restore’s. If the restore results in the
+need for a register window which has previously been written to
+memory as part of an overflow, then a window underflow condition
+results. Just like the window overflow, the window underflow
+condition must be handled in software by a trap handler. The
+window underflow trap handler is responsible for reloading the
+contents of the register window requested by the restore
+instruction from the program stack.
+
+The Window Invalid Mask (wim) and the Current Window
+Pointer (cwp) field in the psr are used in conjunction to manage
+the finite set of register windows and detect the window
+overflow and underflow conditions. The cwp contains the index
+of the register window currently in use. The save instruction
+decrements the cwp modulo the number of register windows.
+Similarly, the restore instruction increments the cwp modulo the
+number of register windows. Each bit in the wim represents
+represents whether a register window contains valid information.
+The value of 0 indicates the register window is valid and 1
+indicates it is invalid. When a save instruction causes the cwp
+to point to a register window which is marked as invalid, a
+window overflow condition results. Conversely, the restore
+instruction may result in a window underflow condition.
+
+Other than the assumption that a register window is
+always available for trap (i.e. interrupt) handlers, the SPARC
+architecture places no limits on the number of register windows
+simultaneously marked as invalid (i.e. number of bits set in the
+wim). However, RTEMS assumes that only one register window is
+marked invalid at a time (i.e. only one bit set in the wim).
+This makes the maximum possible number of register windows
+available to the user while still meeting the requirement that
+window overflow and underflow conditions can be detected.
+
+The window overflow and window underflow trap
+handlers are a critical part of the run-time environment for a
+SPARC application. The SPARC architectural specification allows
+for the number of register windows to be any power of two less
+than or equal to 32. The most common choice for SPARC
+implementations appears to be 8 register windows. This results
+in the cwp ranging in value from 0 to 7 on most implementations.
+
+The second complicating factor is the sharing of
+registers between adjacent register windows. While each
+register window has its own set of local registers, the input
+and output registers are shared between adjacent windows. The
+output registers for register window N are the same as the input
+registers for register window ((N - 1) modulo RW) where RW is
+the number of register windows. An alternative way to think of
+this is to remember how parameters are passed to a subroutine on
+the SPARC. The caller loads values into what are its output
+registers. Then after the callee executes a save instruction,
+those parameters are available in its input registers. This is
+a very efficient way to pass parameters as no data is actually
+moved by the save or restore instructions.
+
+Call and Return Mechanism
+-------------------------
+
+The SPARC architecture supports a simple yet
+effective call and return mechanism. A subroutine is invoked
+via the call (call) instruction. This instruction places the
+return address in the caller’s output register 7 (o7). After
+the callee executes a save instruction, this value is available
+in input register 7 (i7) until the corresponding restore
+instruction is executed.
+
+The callee returns to the caller via a jmp to the
+return address. There is a delay slot following this
+instruction which is commonly used to execute a restore
+instruction – if a register window was allocated by this
+subroutine.
+
+It is important to note that the SPARC subroutine
+call and return mechanism does not automatically save and
+restore any registers. This is accomplished via the save and
+restore instructions which manage the set of registers windows.
+
+In case a floating-point unit is supported, then floating-point return values
+appear in the floating-point registers. Single-precision values occupy %f0;
+double-precision values occupy %f0 and %f1. Otherwise, these are scratch
+registers. Due to this the hardware and software floating-point ABIs are
+incompatible.
+
+Calling Mechanism
+-----------------
+
+All RTEMS directives are invoked using the regular
+SPARC calling convention via the call instruction.
+
+Register Usage
+--------------
+
+As discussed above, the call instruction does not
+automatically save any registers. The save and restore
+instructions are used to allocate and deallocate register
+windows. When a register window is allocated, the new set of
+local registers are available for the exclusive use of the
+subroutine which allocated this register set.
+
+Parameter Passing
+-----------------
+
+RTEMS assumes that arguments are placed in the
+caller’s output registers with the first argument in output
+register 0 (o0), the second argument in output register 1 (o1),
+and so forth. Until the callee executes a save instruction, the
+parameters are still visible in the output registers. After the
+callee executes a save instruction, the parameters are visible
+in the corresponding input registers. The following pseudo-code
+illustrates the typical sequence used to call a RTEMS directive
+with three (3) arguments:
+.. code:: c
+
+ load third argument into o2
+ load second argument into o1
+ load first argument into o0
+ invoke directive
+
+User-Provided Routines
+----------------------
+
+All user-provided routines invoked by RTEMS, such as
+user extensions, device drivers, and MPCI routines, must also
+adhere to these calling conventions.
+
+.. COMMENT: COPYRIGHT (c) 1988-2002.
+
+.. COMMENT: On-Line Applications Research Corporation (OAR).
+
+.. COMMENT: All rights reserved.
+
+Memory Model
+============
+
+A processor may support any combination of memory
+models ranging from pure physical addressing to complex demand
+paged virtual memory systems. RTEMS supports a flat memory
+model which ranges contiguously over the processor’s allowable
+address space. RTEMS does not support segmentation or virtual
+memory of any kind. The appropriate memory model for RTEMS
+provided by the targeted processor and related characteristics
+of that model are described in this chapter.
+
+Flat Memory Model
+-----------------
+
+The SPARC architecture supports a flat 32-bit address
+space with addresses ranging from 0x00000000 to 0xFFFFFFFF (4
+gigabytes). Each address is represented by a 32-bit value and
+is byte addressable. The address may be used to reference a
+single byte, half-word (2-bytes), word (4 bytes), or doubleword
+(8 bytes). Memory accesses within this address space are
+performed in big endian fashion by the SPARC. Memory accesses
+which are not properly aligned generate a "memory address not
+aligned" trap (type number 7). The following table lists the
+alignment requirements for a variety of data accesses:
+
+.. code:: c
+
+ +--------------+-----------------------+
+ | Data Type | Alignment Requirement |
+ +--------------+-----------------------+
+ | byte | 1 |
+ | half-word | 2 |
+ | word | 4 |
+ | doubleword | 8 |
+ +--------------+-----------------------+
+
+Doubleword load and store operations must use a pair
+of registers as their source or destination. This pair of
+registers must be an adjacent pair of registers with the first
+of the pair being even numbered. For example, a valid
+destination for a doubleword load might be input registers 0 and
+1 (i0 and i1). The pair i1 and i2 would be invalid. \[NOTE:
+Some assemblers for the SPARC do not generate an error if an odd
+numbered register is specified as the beginning register of the
+pair. In this case, the assembler assumes that what the
+programmer meant was to use the even-odd pair which ends at the
+specified register. This may or may not have been a correct
+assumption.]
+
+RTEMS does not support any SPARC Memory Management
+Units, therefore, virtual memory or segmentation systems
+involving the SPARC are not supported.
+
+.. COMMENT: COPYRIGHT (c) 1988-2002.
+
+.. COMMENT: On-Line Applications Research Corporation (OAR).
+
+.. COMMENT: All rights reserved.
+
+Interrupt Processing
+====================
+
+Different types of processors respond to the
+occurrence of an interrupt in its own unique fashion. In
+addition, each processor type provides a control mechanism to
+allow for the proper handling of an interrupt. The processor
+dependent response to the interrupt modifies the current
+execution state and results in a change in the execution stream.
+Most processors require that an interrupt handler utilize some
+special control mechanisms to return to the normal processing
+stream. Although RTEMS hides many of the processor dependent
+details of interrupt processing, it is important to understand
+how the RTEMS interrupt manager is mapped onto the processor’s
+unique architecture. Discussed in this chapter are the SPARC’s
+interrupt response and control mechanisms as they pertain to
+RTEMS.
+
+RTEMS and associated documentation uses the terms
+interrupt and vector. In the SPARC architecture, these terms
+correspond to traps and trap type, respectively. The terms will
+be used interchangeably in this manual.
+
+Synchronous Versus Asynchronous Traps
+-------------------------------------
+
+The SPARC architecture includes two classes of traps:
+synchronous and asynchronous. Asynchronous traps occur when an
+external event interrupts the processor. These traps are not
+associated with any instruction executed by the processor and
+logically occur between instructions. The instruction currently
+in the execute stage of the processor is allowed to complete
+although subsequent instructions are annulled. The return
+address reported by the processor for asynchronous traps is the
+pair of instructions following the current instruction.
+
+Synchronous traps are caused by the actions of an
+instruction. The trap stimulus in this case either occurs
+internally to the processor or is from an external signal that
+was provoked by the instruction. These traps are taken
+immediately and the instruction that caused the trap is aborted
+before any state changes occur in the processor itself. The
+return address reported by the processor for synchronous traps
+is the instruction which caused the trap and the following
+instruction.
+
+Vectoring of Interrupt Handler
+------------------------------
+
+Upon receipt of an interrupt the SPARC automatically
+performs the following actions:
+
+- disables traps (sets the ET bit of the psr to 0),
+
+- the S bit of the psr is copied into the Previous
+ Supervisor Mode (PS) bit of the psr,
+
+- the cwp is decremented by one (modulo the number of
+ register windows) to activate a trap window,
+
+- the PC and nPC are loaded into local register 1 and 2
+ (l0 and l1),
+
+- the trap type (tt) field of the Trap Base Register (TBR)
+ is set to the appropriate value, and
+
+- if the trap is not a reset, then the PC is written with
+ the contents of the TBR and the nPC is written with TBR + 4. If
+ the trap is a reset, then the PC is set to zero and the nPC is
+ set to 4.
+
+Trap processing on the SPARC has two features which
+are noticeably different than interrupt processing on other
+architectures. First, the value of psr register in effect
+immediately before the trap occurred is not explicitly saved.
+Instead only reversible alterations are made to it. Second, the
+Processor Interrupt Level (pil) is not set to correspond to that
+of the interrupt being processed. When a trap occurs, ALL
+subsequent traps are disabled. In order to safely invoke a
+subroutine during trap handling, traps must be enabled to allow
+for the possibility of register window overflow and underflow
+traps.
+
+If the interrupt handler was installed as an RTEMS
+interrupt handler, then upon receipt of the interrupt, the
+processor passes control to the RTEMS interrupt handler which
+performs the following actions:
+
+- saves the state of the interrupted task on it’s stack,
+
+- insures that a register window is available for
+ subsequent traps,
+
+- if this is the outermost (i.e. non-nested) interrupt,
+ then the RTEMS interrupt handler switches from the current stack
+ to the interrupt stack,
+
+- enables traps,
+
+- invokes the vectors to a user interrupt service routine (ISR).
+
+Asynchronous interrupts are ignored while traps are
+disabled. Synchronous traps which occur while traps are
+disabled result in the CPU being forced into an error mode.
+
+A nested interrupt is processed similarly with the
+exception that the current stack need not be switched to the
+interrupt stack.
+
+Traps and Register Windows
+--------------------------
+
+One of the register windows must be reserved at all
+times for trap processing. This is critical to the proper
+operation of the trap mechanism in the SPARC architecture. It
+is the responsibility of the trap handler to insure that there
+is a register window available for a subsequent trap before
+re-enabling traps. It is likely that any high level language
+routines invoked by the trap handler (such as a user-provided
+RTEMS interrupt handler) will allocate a new register window.
+The save operation could result in a window overflow trap. This
+trap cannot be correctly processed unless (1) traps are enabled
+and (2) a register window is reserved for traps. Thus, the
+RTEMS interrupt handler insures that a register window is
+available for subsequent traps before enabling traps and
+invoking the user’s interrupt handler.
+
+Interrupt Levels
+----------------
+
+Sixteen levels (0-15) of interrupt priorities are
+supported by the SPARC architecture with level fifteen (15)
+being the highest priority. Level zero (0) indicates that
+interrupts are fully enabled. Interrupt requests for interrupts
+with priorities less than or equal to the current interrupt mask
+level are ignored. Level fifteen (15) is a non-maskable interrupt
+(NMI), which makes it unsuitable for standard usage since it can
+affect the real-time behaviour by interrupting critical sections
+and spinlocks. Disabling traps stops also the NMI interrupt from
+happening. It can however be used for power-down or other
+critical events.
+
+Although RTEMS supports 256 interrupt levels, the
+SPARC only supports sixteen. RTEMS interrupt levels 0 through
+15 directly correspond to SPARC processor interrupt levels. All
+other RTEMS interrupt levels are undefined and their behavior is
+unpredictable.
+
+Many LEON SPARC v7/v8 systems features an extended interrupt controller
+which adds an extra step of interrupt decoding to allow handling of
+interrupt 16-31. When such an extended interrupt is generated the CPU
+traps into a specific interrupt trap level 1-14 and software reads out from
+the interrupt controller which extended interrupt source actually caused the
+interrupt.
+
+Disabling of Interrupts by RTEMS
+--------------------------------
+
+During the execution of directive calls, critical
+sections of code may be executed. When these sections are
+encountered, RTEMS disables interrupts to level fifteen (15)
+before the execution of the section and restores them to the
+previous level upon completion of the section. RTEMS has been
+optimized to ensure that interrupts are disabled for less than
+RTEMS_MAXIMUM_DISABLE_PERIOD microseconds on a RTEMS_MAXIMUM_DISABLE_PERIOD_MHZ
+Mhz ERC32 with zero wait states.
+These numbers will vary based the number of wait states and
+processor speed present on the target board.
+\[NOTE: The maximum period with interrupts disabled is hand calculated. This
+calculation was last performed for Release
+RTEMS_RELEASE_FOR_MAXIMUM_DISABLE_PERIOD.]
+
+[NOTE: It is thought that the length of time at which
+the processor interrupt level is elevated to fifteen by RTEMS is
+not anywhere near as long as the length of time ALL traps are
+disabled as part of the "flush all register windows" operation.]
+
+Non-maskable interrupts (NMI) cannot be disabled, and
+ISRs which execute at this level MUST NEVER issue RTEMS system
+calls. If a directive is invoked, unpredictable results may
+occur due to the inability of RTEMS to protect its critical
+sections. However, ISRs that make no system calls may safely
+execute as non-maskable interrupts.
+
+Interrupts are disabled or enabled by performing a system call
+to the Operating System reserved software traps 9
+(SPARC_SWTRAP_IRQDIS) or 10 (SPARC_SWTRAP_IRQDIS). The trap is
+generated by the software trap (Ticc) instruction or indirectly
+by calling sparc_disable_interrupts() or sparc_enable_interrupts()
+functions. Disabling interrupts return the previous interrupt level
+(on trap entry) in register G1 and sets PSR.PIL to 15 to disable
+all maskable interrupts. The interrupt level can be restored by
+trapping into the enable interrupt handler with G1 containing the
+new interrupt level.
+
+Interrupt Stack
+---------------
+
+The SPARC architecture does not provide for a
+dedicated interrupt stack. Thus by default, trap handlers would
+execute on the stack of the RTEMS task which they interrupted.
+This artificially inflates the stack requirements for each task
+since EVERY task stack would have to include enough space to
+account for the worst case interrupt stack requirements in
+addition to it’s own worst case usage. RTEMS addresses this
+problem on the SPARC by providing a dedicated interrupt stack
+managed by software.
+
+During system initialization, RTEMS allocates the
+interrupt stack from the Workspace Area. The amount of memory
+allocated for the interrupt stack is determined by the
+interrupt_stack_size field in the CPU Configuration Table. As
+part of processing a non-nested interrupt, RTEMS will switch to
+the interrupt stack before invoking the installed handler.
+
+.. COMMENT: COPYRIGHT (c) 1988-2002.
+
+.. COMMENT: On-Line Applications Research Corporation (OAR).
+
+.. COMMENT: All rights reserved.
+
+Default Fatal Error Processing
+==============================
+
+Upon detection of a fatal error by either the
+application or RTEMS the fatal error manager is invoked. The
+fatal error manager will invoke the user-supplied fatal error
+handlers. If no user-supplied handlers are configured, the
+RTEMS provided default fatal error handler is invoked. If the
+user-supplied fatal error handlers return to the executive the
+default fatal error handler is then invoked. This chapter
+describes the precise operations of the default fatal error
+handler.
+
+Default Fatal Error Handler Operations
+--------------------------------------
+
+The default fatal error handler which is invoked by
+the fatal_error_occurred directive when there is no user handler
+configured or the user handler returns control to RTEMS.
+
+If the BSP has been configured with ``BSP_POWER_DOWN_AT_FATAL_HALT``
+set to true, the default handler will disable interrupts
+and enter power down mode. If power down mode is not available,
+it goes into an infinite loop to simulate a halt processor instruction.
+
+If ``BSP_POWER_DOWN_AT_FATAL_HALT`` is set to false, the default
+handler will place the value ``1`` in register ``g1``, the
+error source in register ``g2``, and the error code in register``g3``. It will then generate a system error which will
+hand over control to the debugger, simulator, etc.
+
+Symmetric Multiprocessing
+=========================
+
+SMP is supported. Available platforms are the Cobham Gaisler GR712RC and
+GR740.
+
+Thread-Local Storage
+====================
+
+Thread-local storage is supported.
+
+.. COMMENT: COPYRIGHT (c) 1988-2002.
+
+.. COMMENT: On-Line Applications Research Corporation (OAR).
+
+.. COMMENT: All rights reserved.
+
+Board Support Packages
+======================
+
+An RTEMS Board Support Package (BSP) must be designed
+to support a particular processor and target board combination.
+This chapter presents a discussion of SPARC specific BSP issues.
+For more information on developing a BSP, refer to the chapter
+titled Board Support Packages in the RTEMS
+Applications User’s Guide.
+
+System Reset
+------------
+
+An RTEMS based application is initiated or
+re-initiated when the SPARC processor is reset. When the SPARC
+is reset, the processor performs the following actions:
+
+- the enable trap (ET) of the psr is set to 0 to disable
+ traps,
+
+- the supervisor bit (S) of the psr is set to 1 to enter
+ supervisor mode, and
+
+- the PC is set 0 and the nPC is set to 4.
+
+The processor then begins to execute the code at
+location 0. It is important to note that all fields in the psr
+are not explicitly set by the above steps and all other
+registers retain their value from the previous execution mode.
+This is true even of the Trap Base Register (TBR) whose contents
+reflect the last trap which occurred before the reset.
+
+Processor Initialization
+------------------------
+
+It is the responsibility of the application’s
+initialization code to initialize the TBR and install trap
+handlers for at least the register window overflow and register
+window underflow conditions. Traps should be enabled before
+invoking any subroutines to allow for register window
+management. However, interrupts should be disabled by setting
+the Processor Interrupt Level (pil) field of the psr to 15.
+RTEMS installs it’s own Trap Table as part of initialization
+which is initialized with the contents of the Trap Table in
+place when the ``rtems_initialize_executive`` directive was invoked.
+Upon completion of executive initialization, interrupts are
+enabled.
+
+If this SPARC implementation supports on-chip caching
+and this is to be utilized, then it should be enabled during the
+reset application initialization code.
+
+In addition to the requirements described in the
+Board Support Packages chapter of the C
+Applications Users Manual for the reset code
+which is executed before the call to``rtems_initialize_executive``, the SPARC version has the following
+specific requirements:
+
+- Must leave the S bit of the status register set so that
+ the SPARC remains in the supervisor state.
+
+- Must set stack pointer (sp) such that a minimum stack
+ size of MINIMUM_STACK_SIZE bytes is provided for the``rtems_initialize_executive`` directive.
+
+- Must disable all external interrupts (i.e. set the pil
+ to 15).
+
+- Must enable traps so window overflow and underflow
+ conditions can be properly handled.
+
+- Must initialize the SPARC’s initial trap table with at
+ least trap handlers for register window overflow and register
+ window underflow.
+
+.. COMMENT: COPYRIGHT (c) 1988-2002.
+
+.. COMMENT: On-Line Applications Research Corporation (OAR).
+
+.. COMMENT: All rights reserved.
+