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+.. comment SPDX-License-Identifier: CC-BY-SA-4.0
+.. COMMENT: COPYRIGHT (c) 1988-2002.
+.. COMMENT: On-Line Applications Research Corporation (OAR).
+.. COMMENT: All rights reserved.
+Port Specific Information
+This chaper provides a general description of the type of architecture specific
+information which is in each of the architecture specific chapters that follow.
+The outline of this chapter is identical to that of the architecture specific
+In each of the architecture specific chapters, this introductory section will
+provide an overview of the architecture:
+**Architecture Documents**
+In each of the architecture specific chapters, this section will provide
+pointers on where to obtain documentation.
+CPU Model Dependent Features
+Microprocessors are generally classified into families with a variety of CPU
+models or implementations within that family. Within a processor family, there
+is a high level of binary compatibility. This family may be based on either an
+architectural specification or on maintaining compatibility with a popular
+processor. Recent microprocessor families such as the SPARC or PowerPC are
+based on an architectural specification which is independent or any particular
+CPU model or implementation. Older families such as the Motorola 68000 and the
+Intel x86 evolved as the manufacturer strived to produce higher performance
+processor models which maintained binary compatibility with older models.
+RTEMS takes advantage of the similarity of the various models within a CPU
+family. Although the models do vary in significant ways, the high level of
+compatibility makes it possible to share the bulk of the CPU dependent
+executive code across the entire family. Each processor family supported by
+RTEMS has a list of features which vary between CPU models within a family.
+For example, the most common model dependent feature regardless of CPU family
+is the presence or absence of a floating point unit or coprocessor. When
+defining the list of features present on a particular CPU model, one simply
+notes that floating point hardware is or is not present and defines a single
+constant appropriately. Conditional compilation is utilized to include the
+appropriate source code for this CPU model's feature set. It is important to
+note that this means that RTEMS is thus compiled using the appropriate feature
+set and compilation flags optimal for this CPU model used. The alternative
+would be to generate a binary which would execute on all family members using
+only the features which were always present.
+The set of CPU model feature macros are defined in the
+:file:`cpukit/score/cpu/CPU/rtems/score/cpu.h` based upon the GNU tools
+multilib variant that is appropriate for the particular CPU model defined on
+the compilation command line.
+In each of the architecture specific chapters, this section presents the set of
+features which vary across various implementations of the architecture that may
+be of importance to RTEMS application developers.
+The subsections will vary amongst the target architecture chapters as the
+specific features may vary. However, each port will include a few common
+features such as the CPU Model Name and presence of a hardware Floating Point
+Unit. The common features are described here.
+CPU Model Name
+The macro ``CPU_MODEL_NAME`` is a string which designates the name of this CPU
+model. For example, for the MC68020 processor model from the m68k
+architecture, this macro is set to the string "mc68020".
+Floating Point Unit
+In most architectures, the presence of a floating point unit is an option. It
+does not matter whether the hardware floating point support is incorporated
+on-chip or is an external coprocessor as long as it appears an FPU per the ISA.
+However, if a hardware FPU is not present, it is possible that the floating
+point emulation library for this CPU is not reentrant and thus context switched
+by RTEMS.
+RTEMS provides two feature macros to indicate the FPU configuration:
+ is set to TRUE to indicate that a hardware FPU is present.
+ is set to TRUE to indicate that a hardware FPU is not present and that the FP
+ software emulation will be context switched.
+Newlib and GCC provide several target libraries like the :file:`libc.a`,
+:file:`libm.a` and :file:`libgcc.a`. These libraries are artifacts of the GCC
+build process. Newlib is built together with GCC. To provide optimal support
+for various chip derivatives and instruction set revisions multiple variants of
+these libraries are available for each architecture. For example one set may
+use software floating point support and another set may use hardware floating
+point instructions. These sets of libraries are called *multilibs*. Each
+library set corresponds to an application binary interface (ABI) and
+instruction set.
+A multilib variant can be usually detected via built-in compiler defines at
+compile-time. This mechanism is used by RTEMS to select for example the
+context switch support for a particular BSP. The built-in compiler defines
+corresponding to multilibs are the only architecture specific defines allowed
+in the ``cpukit`` area of the RTEMS sources.
+Invoking the GCC with the ``-print-multi-lib`` option lists the available
+multilibs. Each line of the output describes one multilib variant. The
+default variant is denoted by ``.`` which is selected when no or contradicting
+GCC machine options are selected. The multilib selection for a target is
+specified by target makefile fragments (see file :file:`t-rtems` in the GCC
+sources and section *The Target Makefile Fragment*
+in the *GCC Internals Manual* (
+Calling Conventions
+Each high-level language compiler generates subroutine entry and exit code
+based upon a set of rules known as the compiler's calling convention. These
+rules address the following issues:
+- register preservation and usage
+- parameter passing
+- call and return mechanism
+A compiler's calling convention is of importance when interfacing to
+subroutines written in another language either assembly or high-level. Even
+when the high-level language and target processor are the same, different
+compilers may use different calling conventions. As a result, calling
+conventions are both processor and compiler dependent.
+Calling Mechanism
+In each of the architecture specific chapters, this subsection will describe
+the instruction(s) used to perform a *normal* subroutine invocation. All RTEMS
+directives are invoked as *normal* C language functions so it is important to
+the user application to understand the call and return mechanism.
+Register Usage
+In each of the architecture specific chapters, this subsection will detail the
+set of registers which are *NOT* preserved across subroutine invocations. The
+registers which are not preserved are assumed to be available for use as
+scratch registers. Therefore, the contents of these registers should not be
+assumed upon return from any RTEMS directive.
+In some architectures, there may be a set of registers made available
+automatically as a side-effect of the subroutine invocation mechanism.
+Parameter Passing
+In each of the architecture specific chapters, this subsection will describe
+the mechanism by which the parameters or arguments are passed by the caller to
+a subroutine. In some architectures, all parameters are passed on the stack
+while in others some are passed in registers.
+User-Provided Routines
+All user-provided routines invoked by RTEMS, such as user extensions, device
+drivers, and MPCI routines, must also adhere to these calling conventions.
+Memory Model
+A processor may support any combination of memory models ranging from pure
+physical addressing to complex demand paged virtual memory systems. RTEMS
+supports a flat memory model which ranges contiguously over the processor's
+allowable address space. RTEMS does not support segmentation or virtual memory
+of any kind. The appropriate memory model for RTEMS provided by the targeted
+processor and related characteristics of that model are described in this
+Flat Memory Model
+Most RTEMS target processors can be initialized to support a flat address
+space. Although the size of addresses varies between architectures, on most
+RTEMS targets, an address is 32-bits wide which defines addresses ranging from
+0x00000000 to 0xFFFFFFFF (4 gigabytes). Each address is represented by a
+32-bit value and is byte addressable. The address may be used to reference a
+single byte, word (2-bytes), or long word (4 bytes). Memory accesses within
+this address space may be performed in little or big endian fashion.
+On smaller CPU architectures supported by RTEMS, the address space may only be
+20 or 24 bits wide.
+If the CPU model has support for virtual memory or segmentation, it is the
+responsibility of the Board Support Package (BSP) to initialize the MMU
+hardware to perform address translations which correspond to flat memory model.
+In each of the architecture specific chapters, this subsection will describe
+any architecture characteristics that differ from this general description.
+Interrupt Processing
+Different types of processors respond to the occurrence of an interrupt in its
+own unique fashion. In addition, each processor type provides a control
+mechanism to allow for the proper handling of an interrupt. The processor
+dependent response to the interrupt modifies the current execution state and
+results in a change in the execution stream. Most processors require that an
+interrupt handler utilize some special control mechanisms to return to the
+normal processing stream. Although RTEMS hides many of the processor dependent
+details of interrupt processing, it is important to understand how the RTEMS
+interrupt manager is mapped onto the processor's unique architecture.
+RTEMS supports a dedicated interrupt stack for all architectures. On
+architectures with hardware support for a dedicated interrupt stack, it will be
+initialized such that when an interrupt occurs, the processor automatically
+switches to this dedicated stack. On architectures without hardware support
+for a dedicated interrupt stack which is separate from those of the tasks,
+RTEMS will support switching to a dedicated stack for interrupt processing.
+Without a dedicated interrupt stack, every task in the system MUST have enough
+stack space to accommodate the worst case stack usage of that particular task
+and the interrupt service routines COMBINED. By supporting a dedicated
+interrupt stack, RTEMS significantly lowers the stack requirements for each
+A nested interrupt is processed similarly with the exception that since the CPU
+is already executing on the interrupt stack, there is no need to switch to the
+interrupt stack.
+In some configurations, RTEMS allocates the interrupt stack from the Workspace
+Area. The amount of memory allocated for the interrupt stack is user
+configured and based upon the ``confdefs.h`` parameter
+``CONFIGURE_INTERRUPT_STACK_SIZE``. This parameter is described in detail in
+the Configuring a System chapter of the User's Guide. On configurations in
+which RTEMS allocates the interrupt stack, during the initialization process,
+RTEMS will also install its interrupt stack. In other configurations, the
+interrupt stack is allocated and installed by the Board Support Package (BSP).
+In each of the architecture specific chapters, this section discesses the
+interrupt response and control mechanisms of the architecture as they pertain
+to RTEMS.
+Vectoring of an Interrupt Handler
+In each of the architecture specific chapters, this subsection will describe
+the architecture specific details of the interrupt vectoring process. In
+particular, it should include a description of the Interrupt Stack Frame (ISF).
+Interrupt Levels
+In each of the architecture specific chapters, this subsection will describe
+how the interrupt levels available on this particular architecture are mapped
+onto the 255 reserved in the task mode. The interrupt level value of zero (0)
+should always mean that interrupts are enabled.
+Any use of an interrupt level that is is not undefined on a particular
+architecture may result in behavior that is unpredictable.
+Disabling of Interrupts by RTEMS
+During the execution of directive calls, critical sections of code may be
+executed. When these sections are encountered, RTEMS disables all external
+interrupts before the execution of this section and restores them to the
+previous level upon completion of the section. RTEMS has been optimized to
+ensure that interrupts are disabled for the shortest number of instructions
+possible. Since the precise number of instructions and their execution time
+varies based upon target CPU family, CPU model, board memory speed, compiler
+version, and optimization level, it is not practical to provide the precise
+number for all possible RTEMS configurations.
+Historically, the measurements were made by hand analyzing and counting the
+execution time of instruction sequences during interrupt disable critical
+sections. For reference purposes, on a 16 Mhz Motorola MC68020, the maximum
+interrupt disable period was typically approximately ten (10) to thirteen (13)
+microseconds. This architecture was memory bound and had a slow bit scan
+instruction. In contrast, during the same period a 14 Mhz SPARC would have a
+worst case disable time of approximately two (2) to three (3) microseconds
+because it had a single cycle bit scan instruction and used fewer cycles for
+memory accesses.
+If you are interested in knowing the worst case execution time for a particular
+version of RTEMS, please contact OAR Corporation and we will be happy to
+product the results as a consulting service.
+Non-maskable interrupts (NMI) cannot be disabled, and ISRs which execute at
+this level MUST NEVER issue RTEMS system calls. If a directive is invoked,
+unpredictable results may occur due to the inability of RTEMS to protect its
+critical sections. However, ISRs that make no system calls may safely execute
+as non-maskable interrupts.
+Default Fatal Error Processing
+Upon detection of a fatal error by either the application or RTEMS during
+initialization the ``rtems_fatal_error_occurred`` directive supplied by the
+Fatal Error Manager is invoked. The Fatal Error Manager will invoke the
+user-supplied fatal error handlers. If no user-supplied handlers are
+configured or all of them return without taking action to shutdown the
+processor or reset, a default fatal error handler is invoked.
+Most of the action performed as part of processing the fatal error are
+described in detail in the Fatal Error Manager chapter in the User's Guide.
+However, the if no user provided extension or BSP specific fatal error handler
+takes action, the final default action is to invoke a CPU architecture specific
+function. Typically this function disables interrupts and halts the processor.
+In each of the architecture specific chapters, this describes the precise
+operations of the default CPU specific fatal error handler.
+Symmetric Multiprocessing
+This section contains information about the Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP)
+status of a particular architecture.
+Thread-Local Storage
+In order to support thread-local storage (TLS) the CPU port must implement the
+facilities mandated by the application binary interface (ABI) of the CPU
+architecture. The CPU port must initialize the TLS area in the
+``_CPU_Context_Initialize()`` function. There are support functions available
+via ``#include <rtems/score/tls.h>`` which implement Variants I and II
+according to Ulrich Drepper, *ELF Handling For Thread-Local Storage*.
+ Uses Variant I, TLS offsets emitted by linker takes the TCB into account.
+ For a reference implementation see :file:`cpukit/score/cpu/arm/cpu.c`.
+ Uses Variant I, TLS offsets emitted by linker neglects the TCB. For a
+ reference implementation see
+ :file:`c/src/lib/libcpu/powerpc/new-exceptions/cpu.c`.
+ Uses Variant II. For a reference implementation see
+ :file:`cpukit/score/cpu/sparc/cpu.c`.
+The board support package (BSP) must provide the following sections and symbols
+in its linker command file:
+.. code-block:: c
+ .tdata : {
+ _TLS_Data_begin = .;
+ *(.tdata .tdata.**)
+ _TLS_Data_end = .;
+ }
+ .tbss : {
+ _TLS_BSS_begin = .;
+ *(.tbss .tbss.* .gnu.linkonce.tb.*) *(.tcommon)
+ _TLS_BSS_end = .;
+ }
+ _TLS_Data_size = _TLS_Data_end - _TLS_Data_begin;
+ _TLS_Data_begin = _TLS_Data_size != 0 ? _TLS_Data_begin : _TLS_BSS_begin;
+ _TLS_Data_end = _TLS_Data_size != 0 ? _TLS_Data_end : _TLS_BSS_begin;
+ _TLS_BSS_size = _TLS_BSS_end - _TLS_BSS_begin;
+ _TLS_Size = _TLS_BSS_end - _TLS_Data_begin;
+ _TLS_Alignment = MAX (ALIGNOF (.tdata), ALIGNOF (.tbss));
+CPU counter
+The CPU support must implement the CPU counter interface. A CPU counter is
+some free-running counter. It ticks usually with a frequency close to the CPU
+or system bus clock. On some architectures the actual implementation is board
+support package dependent. The CPU counter is used for profiling of low-level
+functions. It is also used to implement two busy wait functions
+``rtems_counter_delay_ticks()`` and ``rtems_counter_delay_nanoseconds()`` which
+may be used in device drivers. It may be also used as an entropy source for
+random number generators.
+The CPU counter interface uses a CPU port specific unsigned integer type
+``CPU_Counter_ticks`` to represent CPU counter values. The CPU port must
+provide the following two functions
+- ``_CPU_Counter_read()`` to read the current CPU counter value, and
+- ``_CPU_Counter_difference()`` to get the difference between two CPU
+ counter values.
+Interrupt Profiling
+The RTEMS profiling needs support by the CPU port for the interrupt entry and
+exit times. In case profiling is enabled via the RTEMS build configuration
+option ``--enable-profiling`` (in this case the pre-processor symbol
+``RTEMS_PROFILING`` is defined) the CPU port may provide data for the interrupt
+entry and exit times of the outer-most interrupt. The CPU port can feed
+interrupt entry and exit times with the
+``_Profiling_Outer_most_interrupt_entry_and_exit()`` function (``#include
+<rtems/score/profiling.h>``). For an example please have a look at
+Board Support Packages
+An RTEMS Board Support Package (BSP) must be designed to support a particular
+processor model and target board combination.
+In each of the architecture specific chapters, this section will present a
+discussion of architecture specific BSP issues. For more information on
+developing a BSP, refer to BSP and Device Driver Development Guide and the
+chapter titled Board Support Packages in the RTEMS Applications User's Guide.
+System Reset
+An RTEMS based application is initiated or re-initiated when the processor is
+reset or transfer is passed to it from a boot monitor or ROM monitor.
+In each of the architecture specific chapters, this subsection describes the
+actions that the BSP must tak assuming the application gets control when the
+microprocessor is reset.