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.. SPDX-License-Identifier: CC-BY-SA-4.0

.. Copyright (C) 1988, 2002 On-Line Applications Research Corporation (OAR)

ATA Driver

.. warning::

   The ATA/IDE Drivers are out of date and should not be used for new BSPs.
   The preferred alternative is to port the ATA/SATA/SCSI/NVMe support from
   FreeBSD to RTEMS using the `libbsd <>`_.
   Ask on the mailing list if you plan to write a driver for an ATA/IDE device.


ATA device - physical device attached to an IDE controller


ATA driver provides generic interface to an ATA device. ATA driver is hardware
independent implementation of ATA standard defined in working draft "AT
Attachment Interface with Extensions (ATA-2)" X3T10/0948D revision 4c, March
18, 1996. ATA Driver based on IDE Controller Driver and may be used for
computer systems with single IDE controller and with multiple as well. Although
current implementation has several restrictions detailed below ATA driver
architecture allows easily extend the driver. Current restrictions are:

- Only mandatory (see draft p.29) and two optional (READ/WRITE MULTIPLE)
  commands are implemented

- Only PIO mode is supported but both poll and interrupt driven

The reference implementation for ATA driver can be found in


The ``ata_initialize`` routine is responsible for ATA driver
initialization. The main goal of the initialization is to detect and register
in the system all ATA devices attached to IDE controllers successfully
initialized by the IDE Controller driver.

In the implementation of the driver, the following actions are performed:

.. code-block:: c

    rtems_device_driver ata_initialize(
      rtems_device_major_number  major,
      rtems_device_minor_number  minor,
      void                      *arg
      initialize internal ATA driver data structure

      for each IDE controller successfully initialized by the IDE Controller driver
        if the controller is interrupt driven
          set up interrupt handler

        obtain information about ATA devices attached to the controller
        with help of EXECUTE DEVICE DIAGNOSTIC command

        for each ATA device detected on the controller
          obtain device parameters with help of DEVICE IDENTIFY command

          register new ATA device as new block device in the system

Special processing of ATA commands is required because of absence of
multitasking environment during the driver initialization.

Detected ATA devices are registered in the system as physical block devices
(see libblock library description). Device names are formed based on IDE
controller minor number device is attached to and device number on the
controller (0 - Master, 1 - Slave). In current implementation 64 minor numbers
are reserved for each ATA device which allows to support up to 63 logical
partitions per device.

================ ============= =========== ================
controller minor device number device name ata device minor
================ ============= =========== ================
0                0             hda         0
0                1             hdb         64
1                0             hdc         128
1                1             hdd         172
...              ...           ...         ...
================ ============= =========== ================

ATA Driver Architecture

ATA Driver Main Internal Data Structures

ATA driver works with ATA requests. ATA request is described by the following

.. code-block:: c

    /* ATA request */
    typedef struct ata_req_s {
      Chain_Node        link;   /* link in requests chain */
      char              type;   /* request type */
      ata_registers_t   regs;   /* ATA command */
      uint32_t          cnt;    /* Number of sectors to be exchanged */
      uint32_t          cbuf;   /* number of current buffer from breq in use */
      uint32_t          pos;    /* current position in 'cbuf' */
      blkdev_request   *breq;   /* blkdev_request which corresponds to the ata request */
      rtems_id          sema;   /* semaphore which is used if synchronous
                                 * processing of the ata request is required */
      rtems_status_code status; /* status of ata request processing */
      int               error;  /* error code */
    } ata_req_t;

ATA driver supports separate ATA requests queues for each IDE controller (one
queue per controller). The following structure contains information about
controller's queue and devices attached to the controller:

.. code-block:: c

     * This structure describes controller state, devices configuration on the
     * controller and chain of ATA requests to the controller.
    typedef struct ata_ide_ctrl_s {
      bool          present;   /* controller state */
      ata_dev_t     device[2]; /* ata devices description */
      Chain_Control reqs;      /* requests chain */
    } ata_ide_ctrl_t;

Driver uses array of the structures indexed by the controllers minor number.

The following structure allows to map an ATA device to the pair (IDE controller
minor number device is attached to, device number on the controller):

.. code-block:: c

     * Mapping of RTEMS ATA devices to the following pairs:
     * (IDE controller number served the device, device number on the controller)
    typedef struct ata_ide_dev_s {
      int ctrl_minor;/* minor number of IDE controller serves RTEMS ATA device */
      int device;    /* device number on IDE controller (0 or 1) */
    } ata_ide_dev_t;

Driver uses array of the structures indexed by the ATA devices minor number.

ATA driver defines the following internal events:

.. code-block:: c

    /* ATA driver events */
    typedef enum ata_msg_type_s {
      ATA_MSG_GEN_EVT = 1,     /* general event */
      ATA_MSG_SUCCESS_EVT,     /* success event */
      ATA_MSG_ERROR_EVT,       /* error event */
      ATA_MSG_PROCESS_NEXT_EVT /* process next ata request event */
    } ata_msg_type_t;

Brief ATA Driver Core Overview

All ATA driver functionality is available via ATA driver ioctl. Current
implementation supports only two ioctls: ``BLKIO_REQUEST`` and
``ATAIO_SET_MULTIPLE_MODE``. Each ATA driver ``ioctl()`` call generates an ATA
request which is appended to the appropriate controller queue depending on ATA
device the request belongs to. If appended request is single request in the
controller's queue then ATA driver event is generated.

ATA driver task which manages queue of ATA driver events is core of ATA
driver. In current driver version queue of ATA driver events implemented as
RTEMS message queue. Each message contains event type, IDE controller minor
number on which event happened and error if an error occurred. Events may be
generated either by ATA driver ioctl call or by ATA driver task itself.  Each
time ATA driver task receives an event it gets controller minor number from
event, takes first ATA request from controller queue and processes it depending
on request and event types. An ATA request processing may also includes sending
of several events. If ATA request processing is finished the ATA request is
removed from the controller queue. Note, that in current implementation maximum
one event per controller may be queued at any moment of the time.

(This part seems not very clear, hope I rewrite it soon)