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authorJoel Sherrill <joel@rtems.org>2016-11-15 10:37:59 -0600
committerJoel Sherrill <joel@rtems.org>2017-01-11 12:13:21 -0600
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tree10bf638de133099fcabe5fe713ca98a546a27ab2 /doc/networking/decdriver.t
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downloadrtems-48a7fa31f918a6fc88719b3c9393a9ba2829f42a.tar.bz2
Remove texinfo format documentation. Replaced by Sphinx formatted documentation.
closes #2812.
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-@c
-@c RTEMS Remote Debugger Server Specifications
-@c
-@c Written by: Emmanuel Raguet <raguet@crf.canon.fr>
-@c
-
-@chapter DEC 21140 Driver
-
-@section DEC 21240 Driver Introduction
-
-@c XXX add back in cross reference to list of boards.
-
-One aim of our project is to port RTEMS on a standard PowerPC platform.
-To achieve it, we have chosen a Motorola MCP750 board. This board includes
-an Ethernet controller based on a DEC21140 chip. Because RTEMS has a
-TCP/IP stack, we will
-have to develop the DEC21140 related ethernet driver for the PowerPC port of
-RTEMS. As this controller is able to support 100Mbps network and as there is
-a lot of PCI card using this DEC chip, we have decided to first
-implement this driver on an Intel PC386 target to provide a solution for using
-RTEMS on PC with the 100Mbps network and then to port this code on PowerPC in
-a second phase.
-
-
-The aim of this document is to give some PCI board generalities and
-to explain the software architecture of the RTEMS driver. Finally, we will see
-what will be done for ChorusOs and Netboot environment .
-
-
-@section Document Revision History
-
-@b{Current release}:
-
-@itemize @bullet
-@item Current applicable release is 1.0.
-@end itemize
-@b{Existing releases}:
-
-@itemize @bullet
-@item 1.0 : Released the 10/02/98. First version of this document.
-@item 0.1 : First draft of this document
-@end itemize
-@b{Planned releases}:
-
-@itemize @bullet
-@item None planned today.
-@end itemize
-
-@section DEC21140 PCI Board Generalities
-
-@c XXX add crossreference to PCI Register Figure
-This chapter describes rapidely the PCI interface of this Ethernet controller.
-The board we have chosen for our PC386 implementation is a D-Link DFE-500TX.
-This is a dual-speed 10/100Mbps Ethernet PCI adapter with a DEC21140AF chip.
-Like other PCI devices, this board has a PCI device's header containing some
-required configuration registers, as shown in the PCI Register Figure.
-By reading
-or writing these registers, a driver can obtain information about the type of
-the board, the interrupt it uses, the mapping of the chip specific registers, ...
-
-
-
-On Intel target, the chip specific registers can be accessed via 2
-methods : I/O port access or PCI address mapped access. We have chosen to implement
-the PCI address access to obtain compatible source code to the port the driver
-on a PowerPC target.
-
-@c
-@c PCI Device's Configuration Header Space Format
-@c
-
-@ifclear use-html
-@image{PCIreg,,,PCI Device's Configuration Header Space Format}
-@end ifclear
-
-@ifset use-html
-@c <IMG SRC="PCIreg.jpg" WIDTH=500 HEIGHT=600 ALT="PCI Device's Configuration Header Space Format">
-@html
- <IMG SRC="PCIreg.jpg" ALT="PCI Device's Configuration Header Space Format">
-@end html
-@end ifset
-
-
-@c XXX add crossreference to PCI Register Figure
-
-On RTEMS, a PCI API exists. We have used it to configure the board. After initializing
-this PCI module via the @code{pci_initialize()} function, we try to detect
-the DEC21140 based ethernet board. This board is characterized by its Vendor
-ID (0x1011) and its Device ID (0x0009). We give these arguments to the
-@code{pcib_find_by_deviceid}
-function which returns , if the device is present, a pointer to the configuration
-header space (see PCI Registers Fgure). Once this operation performed,
-the driver
-is able to extract the information it needs to configure the board internal
-registers, like the interrupt line, the base address,... The board internal
-registers will not be detailled here. You can find them in @b{DIGITAL
-Semiconductor 21140A PCI Fast Ethernet LAN Controller
-- Hardware Reference Manual}.
-
-@c fix citation
-
-
-@section RTEMS Driver Software Architecture
-
-In this chapter will see the initialization phase, how the controller uses the
-host memory and the 2 threads launched at the initialization time.
-
-
-@subsection Initialization phase
-
-The DEC21140 Ethernet driver keeps the same software architecture than the other
-RTEMS ethernet drivers. The only API the programmer can use is the @code{rtems_dec21140_driver_attach}
-@code{(struct rtems_bsdnet_ifconfig *config)} function which
-detects the board and initializes the associated data structure (with registers
-base address, entry points to low-level initialization function,...), if the
-board is found.
-
-Once the attach function executed, the driver initializes the DEC
-chip. Then the driver connects an interrupt handler to the interrupt line driven
-by the Ethernet controller (the only interrupt which will be treated is the
-receive interrupt) and launches 2 threads : a receiver thread and a transmitter
-thread. Then the driver waits for incoming frame to give to the protocol stack
-or outcoming frame to send on the physical link.
-
-
-@subsection Memory Buffer
-
-@c XXX add cross reference to Problem
-This DEC chip uses the host memory to store the incoming Ethernet frames and
-the descriptor of these frames. We have chosen to use 7 receive buffers and
-1 transmit buffer to optimize memory allocation due to cache and paging problem
-that will be explained in the section @b{Encountered Problems}.
-
-
-To reference these buffers to the DEC chip we use a buffer descriptors
-ring. The descriptor structure is defined in the Buffer Descriptor Figure.
-Each descriptor
-can reference one or two memory buffers. We choose to use only one buffer of
-1520 bytes per descriptor.
-
-
-The difference between a receive and a transmit buffer descriptor
-is located in the status and control bits fields. We do not give details here,
-please refer to the [DEC21140 Hardware Manual].
-
-@c
-@c Buffer Descriptor
-@c
-
-@ifclear use-html
-@image{recvbd,,,"Buffer Descriptor"}
-@end ifclear
-
-@ifset use-html
-@c <IMG SRC="recvbd.jpg" WIDTH=500 HEIGHT=600 ALT="Buffer Descriptor">
-@html
-<IMG SRC="recvbd.jpg" ALT="Buffer Descriptor">
-@end html
-@end ifset
-
-
-
-@subsection Receiver Thread
-
-This thread is event driven. Each time a DEC PCI board interrupt occurs, the
-handler checks if this is a receive interrupt and send an event ``reception''
-to the receiver thread which looks into the entire buffer descriptors ring the
-ones that contain a valid incoming frame (bit OWN=0 means descriptor belongs
-to host processor). Each valid incoming ethernet frame is sent to the protocol
-stack and the buffer descriptor is given back to the DEC board (the host processor
-reset bit OWN, which means descriptor belongs to 21140).
-
-
-@subsection Transmitter Thread
-
-This thread is also event driven. Each time an Ethernet frame is put in the
-transmit queue, an event is sent to the transmit thread, which empty the queue
-by sending each outcoming frame. Because we use only one transmit buffer, we
-are sure that the frame is well-sent before sending the next.
-
-
-@section Encountered Problems
-
-On Intel PC386 target, we were faced with a problem of memory cache management.
-Because the DEC chip uses the host memory to store the incoming frame and because
-the DEC21140 configuration registers are mapped into the PCI address space,
-we must ensure that the data read (or written) by the host processor are the
-ones written (or read) by the DEC21140 device in the host memory and not old
-data stored in the cache memory. Therefore, we had to provide a way to manage
-the cache. This module is described in the document @b{RTEMS
-Cache Management For Intel}. On Intel, the
-memory region cache management is available only if the paging unit is enabled.
-We have used this paging mechanism, with 4Kb page. All the buffers allocated
-to store the incoming or outcoming frames, buffer descriptor and also the PCI
-address space of the DEC board are located in a memory space with cache disable.
-
-
-Concerning the buffers and their descriptors, we have tried to optimize
-the memory space in term of allocated page. One buffer has 1520 bytes, one descriptor
-has 16 bytes. We have 7 receive buffers and 1 transmit buffer, and for each,
-1 descriptor : (7+1)*(1520+16) = 12288 bytes = 12Kb = 3 entire pages. This
-allows not to lose too much memory or not to disable cache memory for a page
-which contains other data than buffer, which could decrease performance.
-
-
-@section ChorusOs DEC Driver
-
-Because ChorusOs is used in several Canon CRF projects, we must provide such
-a driver on this OS to ensure compatibility between the RTEMS and ChorusOs developments.
-On ChorusOs, a DEC driver source code already exists but only for a PowerPC
-target. We plan to port this code (which uses ChorusOs API) on Intel target.
-This will allow us to have homogeneous developments. Moreover, the port of the
-development performed with ChorusOs environment to RTEMS environment will be
-easier for the developers.
-
-
-@section Netboot DEC driver
-
-We use Netboot tool to load our development from a server to the target via
-an ethernet network. Currently, this tool does not support the DEC board. We
-plan to port the DEC driver for the Netboot tool.
-
-
-But concerning the port of the DEC driver into Netboot, we are faced
-with a problem : in RTEMS environment, the DEC driver is interrupt or event
-driven, in Netboot environment, it must be used in polling mode. It means that
-we will have to re-write some mechanisms of this driver.
-
-
-@section List of Ethernet cards using the DEC chip
-
-Many Ethernet adapter cards use the Tulip chip. Here is a non exhaustive list
-of adapters which support this driver :
-
-@itemize @bullet
-@item Accton EtherDuo PCI.
-@item Accton EN1207 All three media types supported.
-@item Adaptec ANA6911/TX 21140-AC.
-@item Cogent EM110 21140-A with DP83840 N-Way MII transceiver.
-@item Cogent EM400 EM100 with 4 21140 100mbps-only ports + PCI Bridge.
-@item Danpex EN-9400P3.
-@item D-Link DFE500-Tx 21140-A with DP83840 transceiver.
-@item Kingston EtherX KNE100TX 21140AE.
-@item Netgear FX310 TX 10/100 21140AE.
-@item SMC EtherPower10/100 With DEC21140 and 68836 SYM transceiver.
-@item SMC EtherPower10/100 With DEC21140-AC and DP83840 MII transceiver.
-Note: The EtherPower II uses the EPIC chip, which requires a different driver.
-@item Surecom EP-320X DEC 21140.
-@item Thomas Conrad TC5048.
-@item Znyx ZX345 21140-A, usually with the DP83840 N-Way MII transciever. Some ZX345
-cards made in 1996 have an ICS 1890 transciver instead.
-@item ZNYX ZX348 Two 21140-A chips using ICS 1890 transcievers and either a 21052
-or 21152 bridge. Early versions used National 83840 transcievers, but later
-versions are depopulated ZX346 boards.
-@item ZNYX ZX351 21140 chip with a Broadcom 100BaseT4 transciever.
-@end itemize
-
-Our DEC driver has not been tested with all these cards, only with the D-Link
-DFE500-TX.
-
-@itemize @code{ }
-@item @cite{[DEC21140 Hardware Manual] DIGITAL, @b{DIGITAL
-Semiconductor 21140A PCI Fast Ethernet LAN Controller - Hardware
-Reference Manual}}.
-
-@item @cite{[99.TA.0021.M.ER]Emmanuel Raguet,
-@b{RTEMS Cache Management For Intel}}.
-@end itemize