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authorJoel Sherrill <>1999-04-19 21:18:18 +0000
committerJoel Sherrill <>1999-04-19 21:18:18 +0000
commit017f6e57e4a077d641d2bdb980bc213d77a63e6f (patch)
parent63135370d439382f7aa3e9a9e0da3c637d5265a6 (diff)
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+@c COPYRIGHT (c) 1988-1998.
+@c On-Line Applications Research Corporation (OAR).
+@c All rights reserved.
+@c $Id$
+@chapter Ada95 Interrupt Support
+@section Introduction
+This chapter describes what is required to enable Ada interrupt
+and error exception handling when using GNAT over RTEMS.
+The GNAT Ada95 interrupt support RTEMS was developed by
+Jiri Gaisler <> who also wrote this
+@section Mapping Interrupts to POSIX Signals
+In Ada95, interrupts can be attached with the interrupt_attach pragma.
+For most systems, the gnat run-time will use POSIX signal to implement
+the interrupt handling, mapping one signal per interrupt. For interrupts
+to be propagated to the attached Ada handler, the corresponding signal
+must be raised when the interrupt occurs.
+The same mechanism is used to generate Ada error exceptions.
+Three error exceptions are defined: program, constraint and storage
+error. These are generated by raising the predefined signals: SIGILL,
+SIGFPE and SIGSEGV. These signals should be raised when a spurious
+or erroneous trap occurs.
+To enable gnat interrupt and error exception support for a particular
+bsp, the following has to be done:
+@item Write an interrupt/trap handler that will raise the corresponding
+signal depending on the interrupt/trap number.
+@item Install the interrupt handler for all interrupts/traps that will be
+handled by gnat (including spurious).
+@item At startup, gnat calls @code{__gnat_install_handler()}. The bsp
+must provide this function which installs the interrupt/trap handlers.
+@end enumerate
+Which cpu-interrupt will generate which signal is implementation
+defined. There are 32 POSIX signals (1 - 32), and all except the
+three error signals (SIGILL, SIGFPE and SIGSEGV) can be used. I
+would suggest to use the upper 16 (17 - 32) which do not
+have an assigned POSIX name.
+Note that the pragma interrupt_attach will only bind a signal
+to a particular Ada handler - it will not unmask the
+interrupt or do any other things to enable it. This have to be
+done separately, typically by writing various device register.
+@section Example Ada95 Interrupt Program
+An example program is available to show how interrupts
+can be handled in Ada95. Note that generation of the test
+interrupt (irqforce.c) is bsp specific and must be edited.
+@section Version Requirements
+With RTEMS 4.0, a patch was required to psignal.c in RTEMS
+sources (to correct a bug associated to the default action of
+signals 15-32). The SPARC/ERC32 RTEMS BSP includes the
+@code{gnatsupp} subdirectory that can be used as an example
+for other BSPs.
+With GNAT 3.11p, a patch is required for @code{a-init.c} to invoke
+the BSP specific routine that installs the exception handlers.