path: root/user/exe
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authorChris Johns <>2018-05-20 08:32:42 +1200
committerChris Johns <>2018-11-03 16:36:32 +1100
commit8b67c9135cb78abc394d43e449ccc6387c73f014 (patch)
tree6d4a21905a43cc4f476a1d6013baf151ce39ade5 /user/exe
parent21c1a4492a6c437d057c3af605278e9ba5edcac0 (diff)
user: Add RTEMS executable and test documentation.
Diffstat (limited to 'user/exe')
5 files changed, 419 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/user/exe/debugging.rst b/user/exe/debugging.rst
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+.. comment SPDX-License-Identifier: CC-BY-SA-4.0
+.. comment: Copyright (c) 2018 Chris Johns <>
+.. comment: All rights reserved.
+.. index:: Debugging
+An RTEMS executable is debugged by loading the code, data and read-only data
+into a target with a debugger connected. The debugger running on a host
+computer accesses the ELF file reading the debug information it contains.
+The executable being debugged needs to be built with the compiler and linker
+debug options enabled. Debug information makes the ELF executable file large
+but it does not change the binary footprint of the executable when resident in
+the target. Target boot loaders and file conversion tools extract the binary
+code, data and read-only data to create the file embedded on the target.
+An ELF executable built with debug information contains DWARF debug
+information. DWARF is a detailed description of the executable a debugger uses
+to locate functions, find data, understand the type and structure of a
+variable, and know how much entry code every call has. The debugger uses this
+information to set breaks points, step functions, step instructions, view the
+data and much more.
+We recommend the compiler and linker debug options are always enabled. An ELF
+file with debug information can be used to investigate a crash report from a
+production system if the production ELF image is archived. The RTEMS tools
+chain provides tools that can take an address from a crash dump and find the
+corresponding instruction and source line. The extra size the debug information
+adds does not effect the target footprint and the extra size on a host is small
+compared to the benefits it brings.
+A desktop or server operating system's kernel hosts the executable being
+debugged handling the interaction with the executable and the debugger. The
+debugger knows how to communicate to the kernel to get the information it
+needs. Debugging an embedded executable needs an extra piece called an agent to
+connect the target to the debugger. The agent provides a standard remote interface to
+the debugger and an agent specific connection to the target.
+.. _fig-exe-debug:
+.. figure:: ../../images/user/exe-debug.png
+ :width: 80%
+ :alt: Embedded Executable Debugging
+ :figclass: align-center
+ Embedded Executable Debugging
+The RTEMS tool chain provides the GNU debugger GDB. GDB has a remote protocol
+that can run over networks using TCP and UDP protocols. The GDB remote protocol
+is available in a number of open source and commercial debugging
+solutions. Network debugging using the remote protocol helps setting up a
+laboratory, the targets can be remote from the developers desktop allowing for
+better control of the target hardware while avoiding the need to plug devices
+in to an expensive desktop or server machine.
+The following are some examples of GDB and GDB server environments RTEMS
+.. index:: QEMU
+QEMU contains a debugging agent for the target being simulated. A QEMU command
+line option enables a GDB server and the simulator manages the interaction with
+the target processor and it's memory and caches.
+.. _fig-exe-debug-qemu:
+.. figure:: ../../images/user/exe-debug-qemu.png
+ :width: 70%
+ :alt: QEMU Executable Debugging
+ :figclass: align-center
+ QEMU Executable Debugging
+.. index:: OpenOCD
+.. index:: JTAG
+OpenOCD is a JTAG debugging package that interfaces to a wide of JTAG
+pods. JTAG is a low level high speed serial interface modern processors provide
+as a means of controlling the core processing logic. The features available depend on
+the architecture and processor. Typical functions include:
+#. Processor control and register access
+#. System level register access to allow SOC initialization
+#. General address space access
+#. Cache and MMU control
+#. Break and watch points
+.. _fig-exe-debug-qemu:
+.. figure:: ../../images/user/exe-debug-jtag.png
+ :width: 70%
+ :alt: OpenOCD JTAG Executable Debugging
+ :figclass: align-center
+ OpenOCD JTAG Executable Debugging
+.. index:: libdebugger
+The RTEMS kernel has a debugging agent called ``libdebugger``. This is a
+software based agent that runs within RTEMS using network services to provide a
+remote GDB protocol interface. A growing number of architectures are
+supported. The RTEMS debugging agent is for application development providing
+thread aware stop model debug experience.
+.. _fig-exe-debug-libdebugger:
+.. figure:: ../../images/user/exe-debug-libdebugger.png
+ :width: 70%
+ :alt: Libdebugger Executable Debugging
+ :figclass: align-center
+ Libdebugger Executable Debugging
diff --git a/user/exe/executables.rst b/user/exe/executables.rst
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+.. comment SPDX-License-Identifier: CC-BY-SA-4.0
+.. comment: Copyright (c) 2018 Chris Johns <>
+.. comment: All rights reserved.
+RTEMS Executable
+.. index:: RTEMS Executable
+Running executables is the most important part of working with RTEMS, it is
+after all how you run your application and use the RTEMS kernel services.
+An RTEMS executable is embedded in a target and executing an embedded
+executable has challenges not faced when executing software on a desktop or
+server computer. A desktop or server operating system kernel provides all the
+support needed to bring an executable's code and data into a process's address
+space passing control to it and cleaning up when it exits. An embedded target
+has to provide similar functionality to execute an embedded executable.
+An RTEMS Source Builder (RSB) built RTEMS tool chain is used to create RTEMS
+executables. The tool chain executable creates a fixed position statically
+linked Extendable Loader Format (ELF) file that contains the RTEMS kernel,
+standard libraries, 3rd party libraries and application code. RTEMS executes in
+a single address space which means it does not support the ``fork`` or ``exec``
+system calls so statically linking all the code is the easiest and best way to
+create an executable.
+An RTEMS application is constructed vertically with the RTEMS kernel, BSP
+support code and drivers close to the hardware, above which sit the RTEMS
+Application Programming Interfaces (API) for control of threads, mutex and
+other resources an application may use. Middle-ware services like networking,
+interpreted languages, and protocol stacks sit between the RTEMS APIs and the
+application components. The software built into an executable can be see as a
+vertical software stack.
+.. _fig-exe-vert-stack:
+.. figure:: ../../images/user/exe-vert-stack.png
+ :width: 35%
+ :alt: Vertical Software Stack
+ :figclass: align-center
+ Vertical Software Stack
+Building an Application
+.. index:: Building an Application
+RTEMS views any code it is running and using it's interfaces as an
+application. RTEMS conforms to a number of international standards such as
+POSIX and can build and run portable code written in languages such as C, C++
+and Ada.
+Applications are built from source into ELF object files, 3rd party packages
+can be built as libraries or they can be imported as source into an application
+code base. The application, 3rd party packages, RTEMS and standard libraries
+are linked to create the RTEMS executable. The executable is transferred to the
+target and a bootloader loads it from the non-volatile storage into RAM or the
+code is executed in place in the non-volatile storage. The target hardware
+defines what happens.
+.. _fig-exe-app:
+.. figure:: ../../images/user/exe-app.png
+ :width: 90%
+ :alt: Building an Application
+ :figclass: align-center
+ Building an Application
+The standard and 3rd party libraries are a collection of object files built
+using the same set of tools the application source is compiled with. The
+package collects it's object files into an archive or library.
+RTEMS does not provide a standard application build system. The RTEMS ecosystem
+provides support so a range of build systems can be used. Applications can be
+built with ``make``, ``autotools``, ``cmake``, ``waf`` and more. User should
+select a build system that meets their project, system, corporate or personal
+Machine Flags and ABI
+.. index:: Machine flags
+.. index:: Application Binary Interface
+.. index:: ABI
+All code in an RTEMS executable must be built with the same machine flags. The
+machine flags control the instruction set and application binary interface
+(ABI) the compiler generates. As the executable is statically linked all code
+must use the same instruction set the hardware is configured to support and all
+code must conform to the same ABI. Any variation can result in unpredictable
+behavior such as crashes, failures or lock ups. It is recommend an executable
+is built with the same or equivalent tool set. Mixing of tool set versions can
+also result in undefined behavior. The RTEMS tool ``rtems-execinfo`` can audit
+an RTEMS executable and list the machine flags and compilers used.
+RTEMS by default does not support instruction emulation for unsupported
+instructions. RTEMS applications are normally built from source so binary
+compatibility is not as important as performance. Instruction emulation is
+costly to execute and rebuilding the executable with the correct instruction
+set only needs to be done once.
diff --git a/user/exe/execution.rst b/user/exe/execution.rst
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+.. comment SPDX-License-Identifier: CC-BY-SA-4.0
+.. comment: Copyright (c) 2018 Chris Johns <>
+.. comment: All rights reserved.
+Target Execution
+.. index:: Target Execution
+Fixed position statically linked executables have a fixed address in a target's
+address space. The location in the address space for code, data and read-only
+data is fixed. The BSP defines the memory map and it is set by the BSP
+developer based on the target's hardware requirements and it's bootloader.
+Targets typically contains a bootloader that is executed after the target's
+processor exits reset. A bootloader is specific to a target's processor and
+hardware configuration and is responsible for the low level initialization of
+the hardware resources needed to load and execute an operating system's
+kernel. In the case of RTEMS this is the RTEMS executable.
+Bootloaders vary in size, complexity and functionality. Some architectures have
+a number of bootloader stages and others have only minimal support. An example
+of a high end system is Xilinx's Zynq processor with three stages. First a mask
+ROM in the System On Chip (SOC) executes after reset loading a first stage
+bootloader (FSBL) from an SD card, QSPI flash or NAND flash depending on
+signals connected to the device. The FSBL loads a second stage bootloader
+(SSBL) such as U-Boot and this loads the kernel. U-Boot can be configured to
+load a kernel from a range of media and file system formats as well as over a
+network using a number of protocols. This structure provides flexibility at the
+system level to support development environments such as a workshop or
+laboratory through to tightly control production configurations.
+Bootloaders often have custom formats for the executable image they load. The
+formats can be simple to keep the bootloader simple or complex to support
+check-sums, encryption or redundancy in case an image becomes corrupted. A
+bootloader often provides a host tool that creates the required file from the
+RTEMS executable's ELF file.
+If RTEMS is to run from RAM the bootloader reads the image and loads the code,
+initialized data and read-only data into the RAM and then jumps to a known
+entry point. If the code is executed from non-volatile storage the process to
+write the image into that storage will have extracted the various binary parts
+and written those to the correct location.
+The important point to note is the binary parts of the executable are somehow
+loaded into the target's address space ready to execute. The way this done may
+vary but the out come is always the same, the binary code, data and read-only
+data is resident in the processor's address space at the BSP defined
diff --git a/user/exe/index.rst b/user/exe/index.rst
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+.. comment SPDX-License-Identifier: CC-BY-SA-4.0
+.. comment: Copyright (c) 2018 Chris Johns <>
+.. comment: All rights reserved.
+.. index:: Executable
+.. index:: Embedded executable
+This section discusses what an RTEMS executable is and what happens when you
+execute it in a target. The section discusses how an application executable is
+created, what happens when an executable is loaded and run as well as
+debugging an execiutable.
+.. include:: executables.rst
+.. include:: execution.rst
+.. include:: initialization.rst
+.. include:: debugging.rst
diff --git a/user/exe/initialization.rst b/user/exe/initialization.rst
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+.. comment SPDX-License-Identifier: CC-BY-SA-4.0
+.. comment: Copyright (c) 2018 Chris Johns <>
+.. comment: All rights reserved.
+BSP Initialization
+.. index:: BSP Initialization
+The bootloader jumps or calls the RTEMS executable's entry point, normally a
+fixed address. The BSP entry point or start up code performs:
+#. Low level processor specific initialization that such as setting control
+ registers so the processor is operating in a mode RTEMS is built for
+#. Cache flushing, clearing and invalidation
+#. Memory management unit (MMU) set up if required
+#. Clear the uninitialized data section
+#. Process a command line if supported by the bootloader
+#. Call ``bootcard`` which disabled interrupts, saves away a command line if
+ the BSP supports it then call the RTEMS kernel early initialize entry point
+ ``rtems_initialize_executive``. This call never returns.
+Further BSP initialization happens as part of RTEMS kernel's System
+Initialization process. The following handlers are declared and if provided are
+placed at the beginning of the initialization handler list. The BSP can
+ This function determines the amount of memory that can be given to RTEMS for
+ the workspace and the C library heap which ``malloc`` uses. The call
+ typically uses the ``bsp_work_area_initialize_default`` to perform actually
+ perform the initialization.
+ This function is specialized for each architecture and even for some BSPs. It
+ performs the low level initialization RTEMS needs so it can run on the
+ architecture and BSP.
+ This function can be used to initialize hardware drivers depend on such as
+ configuring an interrupt controller. The default version is empty and does
+ nothing.
+BSPs all perform similar operations with common functionality and the RTEMS
+kernel provides common code that can be shared between BSPs. The use of the
+common code is encouraged for all new BSPs.
+RTEMS Initialization
+.. index:: RTEMS Initialization
+The RTEMS kernel initialization is:
+#. Invoke the registered system initialization handlers
+#. Set the system state to **up**
+#. If the kernel supports SMP request multitasking start. All online cores are
+ transferred to the **ready to start multitasking** state.
+#. Start threaded multitasking. RTEMS starts multitasking by getting the first
+ thread to run and dispatching it.
+C++ static object constructors are called in the context of the first running
+thread before the thread body is entered.
+System Initialization Handlers
+RTEMS supports the automatic registration of services used in
+applications. This method of initialization automatically configures RTEMS with
+only the services used in an application. There is no manual configuration of
+services used and no updating of initialization function tables.
+RTEMS uses specialized sections in the ELF executable to perform this task. The
+system is based on the `FreeBSD SYSINT Framework
+<>`_. Ordered
+initialization is performed before multitasking is started.
+The RTEMS Tool ``rtems-exeinfo`` can provide some detail about the registered
+handlers. The following shows the initialization handlers for the *hello world*
+sample application in the RTEMS kernel's testsuite::
+ $ rtems-exeinfo --init arm-rtems5/c/xilinx_zynq_zedboard/testsuites/samples/hello.exe
+ RTEMS Executable Info 5.5416cfa39dd6
+ rtems-exeinfo --init arm-rtems5/c/xilinx_zynq_zedboard/testsuites/samples/hello.exe
+ exe: arm-rtems5/c/xilinx_zynq_zedboard/testsuites/samples/hello.exe
+ Compilation:
+ Producers: 2
+ | GNU AS 2.31.1: 14 objects
+ | GNU C11 7.3.0 20180125 (RTEMS 5, RSB e55769c64cf1a201588565a5662deafe3f1ccdcc, Newlib 103b055035fea328f8bc7826801760fb1c055683): 284 objects
+ Common flags: 4
+ | -march=armv7-a -mthumb -mfpu=neon -mfloat-abi=hard
+ Init sections: 2
+ .init_array
+ 0x001047c1 frame_dummy
+ .rtemsroset
+ 0x00104c05 bsp_work_area_initialize
+ 0x00104c41 bsp_start
+ 0x0010eb45 zynq_debug_console_init
+ 0x0010ec19 rtems_counter_sysinit
+ 0x0010b779 _User_extensions_Handler_initialization
+ 0x0010c66d rtems_initialize_data_structures
+ 0x00107751 _RTEMS_tasks_Manager_initialization
+ 0x0010d4f5 _POSIX_Keys_Manager_initialization
+ 0x0010dd09 _Thread_Create_idle
+ 0x0010cf01 rtems_libio_init
+ 0x001053a5 rtems_filesystem_initialize
+ 0x0010546d _Console_simple_Initialize
+ 0x0010c715 _IO_Initialize_all_drivers
+ 0x001076d5 _RTEMS_tasks_Initialize_user_tasks_body
+ 0x0010cfa9 rtems_libio_post_driver
+The section ``.rtemsroset`` lists the handlers called in order. The handlers
+can be split into the BSP initialization handlers that start the BSP:
+- ``bsp_work_area_initialize``
+- ``bsp_start``
+- ``zynq_debug_console_init``
+- ``rtems_counter_sysinit``
+And the remainder are handlers for services used by the application. The list
+varies based on the services the application uses.