summaryrefslogtreecommitdiffstats
diff options
context:
space:
mode:
authorSebastian Huber <sebastian.huber@embedded-brains.de>2017-07-07 15:50:51 +0200
committerSebastian Huber <sebastian.huber@embedded-brains.de>2017-07-10 09:48:43 +0200
commit90379988d69067bf4963c04496a75d47880461f8 (patch)
tree7570308a21bf3a625c4571af95f12e501df90f77
parent8cf3d75a92b42ba8891c693ede8ea3c3a4290dee (diff)
downloadrtems-docs-90379988d69067bf4963c04496a75d47880461f8.tar.bz2
c-user: Update scheduler/task chapter
Reflect EDF SMP scheduler changes. Close #3059. Close #3063.
-rw-r--r--c-user/scheduling_concepts.rst114
-rw-r--r--c-user/task_manager.rst7
2 files changed, 87 insertions, 34 deletions
diff --git a/c-user/scheduling_concepts.rst b/c-user/scheduling_concepts.rst
index 7a77a33..bd9b6b3 100644
--- a/c-user/scheduling_concepts.rst
+++ b/c-user/scheduling_concepts.rst
@@ -36,25 +36,25 @@ The directives provided by the scheduler manager are:
- rtems_scheduler_remove_processor_ - Remove processor from a scheduler
Scheduling Algorithms
-=====================
+---------------------
.. index:: scheduling algorithms
RTEMS provides a plugin framework which allows it to support multiple
-scheduling algorithms. RTEMS now includes multiple scheduling algorithms in the
-SuperCore and the user can select which of these they wish to use in their
-application. In addition, the user can implement their own scheduling
-algorithm and configure RTEMS to use it.
+scheduling algorithms. RTEMS includes multiple scheduling algorithms and the
+user can select which of these they wish to use in their application at
+link-time. In addition, the user can implement their own scheduling algorithm
+and configure RTEMS to use it.
Supporting multiple scheduling algorithms gives the end user the option to
select the algorithm which is most appropriate to their use case. Most
real-time operating systems schedule tasks using a priority based algorithm,
possibly with preemption control. The classic RTEMS scheduling algorithm which
-was the only algorithm available in RTEMS 4.10 and earlier, is a priority based
-scheduling algorithm. This scheduling algoritm is suitable for single core
-(e.g. non-SMP) systems and is now known as the *Deterministic Priority
+was the only algorithm available in RTEMS 4.10 and earlier, is a fixed-priority
+scheduling algorithm. This scheduling algoritm is suitable for uniprocessor
+(e.g. non-SMP) systems and is known as the *Deterministic Priority
Scheduler*. Unless the user configures another scheduling algorithm, RTEMS
-will use this on single core systems.
+will use this on uniprocessor systems.
Priority Scheduling
-------------------
@@ -99,12 +99,24 @@ algorithm. These ways involve a list or chain of tasks in the ready state.
- Another mechanism is to maintain a list of FIFOs per priority. When a task
is readied, it is placed on the rear of the FIFO for its priority. This
method is often used with a bitmap to assist in locating which FIFOs have
- ready tasks on them.
+ ready tasks on them. This data structure has :math:`O(1)` insert, extract
+ and find highest ready run-time complexities.
+
+- A red-black tree may be used for the ready queue with the priority as the
+ key. This data structure has :math:`O(log(n))` insert, extract and find
+ highest ready run-time complexities while :math:`n` is the count of tasks in
+ the ready queue.
RTEMS currently includes multiple priority based scheduling algorithms as well
as other algorithms which incorporate deadline. Each algorithm is discussed in
the following sections.
+Uniprocessor Schedulers
+=======================
+
+All uniprocessor schedulers included in RTEMS are priority based. The
+processor is allocated to the highest priority task allowed to run.
+
Deterministic Priority Scheduler
--------------------------------
@@ -137,20 +149,6 @@ supporting a large number of tasks.
This scheduler is only aware of a single core.
-Simple SMP Priority Scheduler
------------------------------
-
-This scheduler is based upon the Simple Priority Scheduler and is designed to
-have the same behaviour on a single core system. But this scheduler is capable
-of scheduling threads across multiple cores in an SMP system. When given a
-choice of replacing one of two threads at equal priority on different cores,
-this algorithm favors replacing threads which are preemptible and have executed
-the longest.
-
-This algorithm is non-deterministic. When scheduling, it must consider which
-tasks are to be executed on each core while avoiding superfluous task
-migrations.
-
Earliest Deadline First Scheduler
---------------------------------
.. index:: earliest deadline first scheduling
@@ -183,13 +181,6 @@ period, it has to be finished until the end of this period. The call of
deadline. Moreover, the ``rtems_rate_monotonic_cancel`` and
``rtems_rate_monotonic_delete`` calls clear the deadlines assigned to the task.
-Earliest Deadline First SMP Scheduler
--------------------------------------
-
-An EDF scheduler with SMP support. The processors managed by this scheduler
-are allocated to the highest priority (earliest deadline) tasks which are ready
-to execute.
-
Constant Bandwidth Server Scheduling (CBS)
------------------------------------------
.. index:: constant bandwidth server scheduling
@@ -219,6 +210,56 @@ The CBS provides an extensive API. Unlike EDF, the
``rtems_rate_monotonic_period`` does not declare a deadline because it is
carried out using CBS API. This call only announces next period.
+SMP Schedulers
+==============
+
+All SMP schedulers included in RTEMS are priority based. The processors
+managed by a scheduler instance are allocated to the highest priority tasks
+allowed to run.
+
+Earliest Deadline First SMP Scheduler
+-------------------------------------
+
+A job-level fixed-priority scheduler using the Earliest Deadline First (EDF)
+method. By convention, the maximum priority level is
+:math:`min(INT\_MAX, 2^{63} - 1)` for background tasks. The tasks with an
+active deadline have a higher priority than the background tasks. This
+scheduler supports task processor affinities of one-to-one and one-to-all, e.g.
+a task can execute on exactly one processor or all processors managed by the
+scheduler instance. This is the default scheduler in SMP configurations if
+more than one processor is configured. The processor affinity set of a task
+must contain all online processors to select the one-to-all affinity. This is
+to avoid pathological cases if processors are added/removed to/from the
+scheduler instance at run-time. In case the processor affinity set contains
+not all online processors, then a one-to-one affinity will be used selecting
+the processor with the largest index within the set of processores currently
+owned by the scheduler instance.
+
+Deterministic Priority SMP Scheduler
+------------------------------------
+
+A fixed-priority scheduler which uses a table of chains with one chain per
+priority level for the ready tasks. The maximum priority level is
+configurable. By default, the maximum priority level is 255 (256 priority
+levels).
+
+Simple Priority SMP Scheduler
+-----------------------------
+
+A fixed-priority scheduler which uses a sorted chain for the ready tasks. By
+convention, the maximum priority level is 255. The implementation limit is
+actually :math:`2^{64} - 1`.
+
+Aribitary Processor Affinity Priority SMP Scheduler
+---------------------------------------------------
+
+A fixed-priority scheduler which uses a table of chains with one chain per
+priority level for the ready tasks. The maximum priority level is
+configurable. By default, the maximum priority level is 255 (256 priority
+levels). This scheduler supports arbitrary task processor affinities. The
+worst-case run-time complexity of some scheduler operations exceeds
+:math:`O(n)` while :math:`n` is the count of ready tasks.
+
Scheduling Modification Mechanisms
==================================
@@ -251,8 +292,10 @@ Task Priority and Scheduling
The most significant task scheduling modification mechanism is the ability for
the user to assign a priority level to each individual task when it is created
-and to alter a task's priority at run-time. RTEMS supports up to 255 priority
-levels. Level 255 is the lowest priority and level 1 is the highest.
+and to alter a task's priority at run-time. The maximum priority level depends
+on the configured scheduler. A lower priority level means higher priority
+(higher importance). The maximum priority level of the default uniprocessor
+scheduler is 255.
Preemption
----------
@@ -608,6 +651,11 @@ DIRECTIVE STATUS CODES:
- The set of processors owned by the specified scheduler instance would
be empty after the processor removal and there exists a non-idle task
that uses this scheduler instance as its home scheduler instance.
+ * - ``RTEMS_RESOURCE_IN_USE``
+ - A task with a restricted processor affinity exists that uses this
+ scheduler instance as its home scheduler instance and it would be no
+ longer possible to allocate a processor for this task after the
+ removal of this processor.
DESCRIPTION:
Removes a processor from set of processors owned by the specified scheduler
diff --git a/c-user/task_manager.rst b/c-user/task_manager.rst
index 511d48b..65f2468 100644
--- a/c-user/task_manager.rst
+++ b/c-user/task_manager.rst
@@ -1544,7 +1544,7 @@ DESCRIPTION:
processor and a cleared bit means the opposite.
NOTES:
- None.
+ The task processor affinity is initialized to the set of online processors.
.. raw:: latex
@@ -1594,6 +1594,11 @@ NOTES:
an error if the processor affinity set contains processors that are not
part of the system.
+ In case a scheduler without support for task affinites is used for the
+ task, then the task processor affinity set must contain all online
+ processors of the system. This prevents odd corner cases if processors are
+ added/removed at run-time to/from scheduler instances.
+
.. raw:: latex
\clearpage