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authorSebastian Huber <sebastian.huber@embedded-brains.de>2020-08-20 10:13:23 +0200
committerSebastian Huber <sebastian.huber@embedded-brains.de>2020-09-02 17:58:03 +0200
commitccb384b6233c3a31ade96b419026dc9049ad9c5b (patch)
treea0c1fca6937afcbd77970595726bea6dce375999
parente3523ed062f50def78cc159f9ac7a24946116943 (diff)
downloadrtems-docs-ccb384b6233c3a31ade96b419026dc9049ad9c5b.tar.bz2
c-user: Split up task manager
This makes it easier to automatically generate parts of the manager documentation in the future. Update #3993.
-rw-r--r--c-user/index.rst2
-rw-r--r--c-user/task/background.rst390
-rw-r--r--c-user/task/directives.rst (renamed from c-user/task_manager.rst)625
-rw-r--r--c-user/task/index.rst15
-rw-r--r--c-user/task/introduction.rst50
-rw-r--r--c-user/task/operations.rst192
6 files changed, 648 insertions, 626 deletions
diff --git a/c-user/index.rst b/c-user/index.rst
index 3628634..344b791 100644
--- a/c-user/index.rst
+++ b/c-user/index.rst
@@ -30,7 +30,7 @@ RTEMS Classic API Guide (|version|).
rtems_data_types
scheduling_concepts
initialization
- task_manager
+ task/index
interrupt/index
clock/index
timer_manager
diff --git a/c-user/task/background.rst b/c-user/task/background.rst
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..a55f743
--- /dev/null
+++ b/c-user/task/background.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,390 @@
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: CC-BY-SA-4.0
+
+.. Copyright (C) 2020 embedded brains GmbH (http://www.embedded-brains.de)
+.. Copyright (C) 1988, 2008 On-Line Applications Research Corporation (OAR)
+
+Background
+==========
+
+.. index:: task, definition
+
+Task Definition
+---------------
+
+Many definitions of a task have been proposed in computer literature.
+Unfortunately, none of these definitions encompasses all facets of the concept
+in a manner which is operating system independent. Several of the more common
+definitions are provided to enable each user to select a definition which best
+matches their own experience and understanding of the task concept:
+
+- a "dispatchable" unit.
+
+- an entity to which the processor is allocated.
+
+- an atomic unit of a real-time, multiprocessor system.
+
+- single threads of execution which concurrently compete for resources.
+
+- a sequence of closely related computations which can execute concurrently
+ with other computational sequences.
+
+From RTEMS' perspective, a task is the smallest thread of execution which can
+compete on its own for system resources. A task is manifested by the existence
+of a task control block (TCB).
+
+.. _TaskControlBlock:
+
+Task Control Block
+------------------
+
+The Task Control Block (TCB) is an RTEMS defined data structure which contains
+all the information that is pertinent to the execution of a task. During
+system initialization, RTEMS reserves a TCB for each task configured. A TCB is
+allocated upon creation of the task and is returned to the TCB free list upon
+deletion of the task.
+
+The TCB's elements are modified as a result of system calls made by the
+application in response to external and internal stimuli. TCBs are the only
+RTEMS internal data structure that can be accessed by an application via user
+extension routines. The TCB contains a task's name, ID, current priority,
+current and starting states, execution mode, TCB user extension pointer,
+scheduling control structures, as well as data required by a blocked task.
+
+A task's context is stored in the TCB when a task switch occurs. When the task
+regains control of the processor, its context is restored from the TCB. When a
+task is restarted, the initial state of the task is restored from the starting
+context area in the task's TCB.
+
+.. index:: task memory
+
+Task Memory
+-----------
+
+The system uses two separate memory areas to manage a task. One memory area is
+the :ref:`TaskControlBlock`. The other memory area is allocated from the stack
+space or provided by the user and contains
+
+* the task stack,
+
+* the thread-local storage (:term:`TLS`), and
+
+* an optional architecture-specific floating-point context.
+
+The size of the thread-local storage is determined at link time. A
+user-provided task stack must take the size of the thread-local storage into
+account.
+
+On architectures with a dedicated floating-point context, the application
+configuration assumes that every task is a floating-point task, but whether or
+not a task is actually floating-point is determined at runtime during task
+creation (see :ref:`TaskFloatingPointConsiderations`). In highly memory
+constrained systems this potential overestimate of the task stack space can be
+mitigated through the :ref:`CONFIGURE_MINIMUM_TASK_STACK_SIZE` configuration
+option and aligned task stack sizes for the tasks. A user-provided task stack
+must take the potential floating-point context into account.
+
+.. index:: task name
+
+Task Name
+---------
+
+By default, the task name is defined by the task object name given to
+:ref:`rtems_task_create() <rtems_task_create>`. The task name can be obtained
+with the `pthread_getname_np()
+<http://man7.org/linux/man-pages/man3/pthread_setname_np.3.html>`_ function.
+Optionally, a new task name may be set with the `pthread_setname_np()
+<http://man7.org/linux/man-pages/man3/pthread_setname_np.3.html>`_ function.
+The maximum size of a task name is defined by the application configuration
+option :ref:`CONFIGURE_MAXIMUM_THREAD_NAME_SIZE
+<CONFIGURE_MAXIMUM_THREAD_NAME_SIZE>`.
+
+.. index:: task states
+
+Task States
+-----------
+
+A task may exist in one of the following five states:
+
+- *executing* - Currently scheduled to the CPU
+
+- *ready* - May be scheduled to the CPU
+
+- *blocked* - Unable to be scheduled to the CPU
+
+- *dormant* - Created task that is not started
+
+- *non-existent* - Uncreated or deleted task
+
+An active task may occupy the executing, ready, blocked or dormant state,
+otherwise the task is considered non-existent. One or more tasks may be active
+in the system simultaneously. Multiple tasks communicate, synchronize, and
+compete for system resources with each other via system calls. The multiple
+tasks appear to execute in parallel, but actually each is dispatched to the CPU
+for periods of time determined by the RTEMS scheduling algorithm. The
+scheduling of a task is based on its current state and priority.
+
+.. index:: task priority
+.. index:: priority, task
+.. index:: rtems_task_priority
+
+Task Priority
+-------------
+
+A task's priority determines its importance in relation to the other tasks
+executing on the same processor. RTEMS supports 255 levels of priority ranging
+from 1 to 255. The data type ``rtems_task_priority`` is used to store task
+priorities.
+
+Tasks of numerically smaller priority values are more important tasks than
+tasks of numerically larger priority values. For example, a task at priority
+level 5 is of higher privilege than a task at priority level 10. There is no
+limit to the number of tasks assigned to the same priority.
+
+Each task has a priority associated with it at all times. The initial value of
+this priority is assigned at task creation time. The priority of a task may be
+changed at any subsequent time.
+
+Priorities are used by the scheduler to determine which ready task will be
+allowed to execute. In general, the higher the logical priority of a task, the
+more likely it is to receive processor execution time.
+
+.. index:: task mode
+.. index:: rtems_task_mode
+
+Task Mode
+---------
+
+A task's execution mode is a combination of the following four components:
+
+- preemption
+
+- ASR processing
+
+- timeslicing
+
+- interrupt level
+
+It is used to modify RTEMS' scheduling process and to alter the execution
+environment of the task. The data type ``rtems_task_mode`` is used to manage
+the task execution mode.
+
+.. index:: preemption
+
+The preemption component allows a task to determine when control of the
+processor is relinquished. If preemption is disabled (``RTEMS_NO_PREEMPT``),
+the task will retain control of the processor as long as it is in the executing
+state - even if a higher priority task is made ready. If preemption is enabled
+(``RTEMS_PREEMPT``) and a higher priority task is made ready, then the
+processor will be taken away from the current task immediately and given to the
+higher priority task.
+
+.. index:: timeslicing
+
+The timeslicing component is used by the RTEMS scheduler to determine how the
+processor is allocated to tasks of equal priority. If timeslicing is enabled
+(``RTEMS_TIMESLICE``), then RTEMS will limit the amount of time the task can
+execute before the processor is allocated to another ready task of equal
+priority. The length of the timeslice is application dependent and specified in
+the Configuration Table. If timeslicing is disabled (``RTEMS_NO_TIMESLICE``),
+then the task will be allowed to execute until a task of higher priority is
+made ready. If ``RTEMS_NO_PREEMPT`` is selected, then the timeslicing component
+is ignored by the scheduler.
+
+The asynchronous signal processing component is used to determine when received
+signals are to be processed by the task. If signal processing is enabled
+(``RTEMS_ASR``), then signals sent to the task will be processed the next time
+the task executes. If signal processing is disabled (``RTEMS_NO_ASR``), then
+all signals received by the task will remain posted until signal processing is
+enabled. This component affects only tasks which have established a routine to
+process asynchronous signals.
+
+.. index:: interrupt level, task
+
+The interrupt level component is used to determine which interrupts will be
+enabled when the task is executing. ``RTEMS_INTERRUPT_LEVEL(n)`` specifies that
+the task will execute at interrupt level n.
+
+.. list-table::
+ :class: rtems-table
+
+ * - ``RTEMS_PREEMPT``
+ - enable preemption (default)
+ * - ``RTEMS_NO_PREEMPT``
+ - disable preemption
+ * - ``RTEMS_NO_TIMESLICE``
+ - disable timeslicing (default)
+ * - ``RTEMS_TIMESLICE``
+ - enable timeslicing
+ * - ``RTEMS_ASR``
+ - enable ASR processing (default)
+ * - ``RTEMS_NO_ASR``
+ - disable ASR processing
+ * - ``RTEMS_INTERRUPT_LEVEL(0)``
+ - enable all interrupts (default)
+ * - ``RTEMS_INTERRUPT_LEVEL(n)``
+ - execute at interrupt level n
+
+The set of default modes may be selected by specifying the
+``RTEMS_DEFAULT_MODES`` constant.
+
+.. index:: task arguments
+.. index:: task prototype
+
+Accessing Task Arguments
+------------------------
+
+All RTEMS tasks are invoked with a single argument which is specified when they
+are started or restarted. The argument is commonly used to communicate startup
+information to the task. The simplest manner in which to define a task which
+accesses it argument is:
+
+.. index:: rtems_task
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ rtems_task user_task(
+ rtems_task_argument argument
+ );
+
+Application tasks requiring more information may view this single argument as
+an index into an array of parameter blocks.
+
+.. index:: floating point
+
+.. _TaskFloatingPointConsiderations:
+
+Floating Point Considerations
+-----------------------------
+
+Please consult the *RTEMS CPU Architecture Supplement* if this section is
+relevant on your architecture. On some architectures the floating-point context
+is contained in the normal task context and this section does not apply.
+
+Creating a task with the ``RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT`` attribute flag results in
+additional memory being allocated for the task to store the state of the numeric
+coprocessor during task switches. This additional memory is **not** allocated
+for ``RTEMS_NO_FLOATING_POINT`` tasks. Saving and restoring the context of a
+``RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT`` task takes longer than that of a
+``RTEMS_NO_FLOATING_POINT`` task because of the relatively large amount of time
+required for the numeric coprocessor to save or restore its computational state.
+
+Since RTEMS was designed specifically for embedded military applications which
+are floating point intensive, the executive is optimized to avoid unnecessarily
+saving and restoring the state of the numeric coprocessor. In uniprocessor
+configurations, the state of the numeric coprocessor is only saved when a
+``RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT`` task is dispatched and that task was not the last task
+to utilize the coprocessor. In a uniprocessor system with only one
+``RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT`` task, the state of the numeric coprocessor will never
+be saved or restored.
+
+Although the overhead imposed by ``RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT`` tasks is minimal,
+some applications may wish to completely avoid the overhead associated with
+``RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT`` tasks and still utilize a numeric coprocessor. By
+preventing a task from being preempted while performing a sequence of floating
+point operations, a ``RTEMS_NO_FLOATING_POINT`` task can utilize the numeric
+coprocessor without incurring the overhead of a ``RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT``
+context switch. This approach also avoids the allocation of a floating point
+context area. However, if this approach is taken by the application designer,
+**no** tasks should be created as ``RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT`` tasks. Otherwise, the
+floating point context will not be correctly maintained because RTEMS assumes
+that the state of the numeric coprocessor will not be altered by
+``RTEMS_NO_FLOATING_POINT`` tasks. Some architectures with a dedicated
+floating-point context raise a processor exception if a task with
+``RTEMS_NO_FLOATING_POINT`` issues a floating-point instruction, so this
+approach may not work at all.
+
+If the supported processor type does not have hardware floating capabilities or
+a standard numeric coprocessor, RTEMS will not provide built-in support for
+hardware floating point on that processor. In this case, all tasks are
+considered ``RTEMS_NO_FLOATING_POINT`` whether created as
+``RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT`` or ``RTEMS_NO_FLOATING_POINT`` tasks. A floating
+point emulation software library must be utilized for floating point
+operations.
+
+On some processors, it is possible to disable the floating point unit
+dynamically. If this capability is supported by the target processor, then
+RTEMS will utilize this capability to enable the floating point unit only for
+tasks which are created with the ``RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT`` attribute. The
+consequence of a ``RTEMS_NO_FLOATING_POINT`` task attempting to access the
+floating point unit is CPU dependent but will generally result in an exception
+condition.
+
+.. index:: task attributes, building
+
+Building a Task Attribute Set
+-----------------------------
+
+In general, an attribute set is built by a bitwise OR of the desired
+components. The set of valid task attribute components is listed below:
+
+.. list-table::
+ :class: rtems-table
+
+ * - ``RTEMS_NO_FLOATING_POINT``
+ - does not use coprocessor (default)
+ * - ``RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT``
+ - uses numeric coprocessor
+ * - ``RTEMS_LOCAL``
+ - local task (default)
+ * - ``RTEMS_GLOBAL``
+ - global task
+
+Attribute values are specifically designed to be mutually exclusive, therefore
+bitwise OR and addition operations are equivalent as long as each attribute
+appears exactly once in the component list. A component listed as a default is
+not required to appear in the component list, although it is a good programming
+practice to specify default components. If all defaults are desired, then
+``RTEMS_DEFAULT_ATTRIBUTES`` should be used.
+
+This example demonstrates the attribute_set parameter needed to create a local
+task which utilizes the numeric coprocessor. The attribute_set parameter could
+be ``RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT`` or ``RTEMS_LOCAL | RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT``. The
+attribute_set parameter can be set to ``RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT`` because
+``RTEMS_LOCAL`` is the default for all created tasks. If the task were global
+and used the numeric coprocessor, then the attribute_set parameter would be
+``RTEMS_GLOBAL | RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT``.
+
+.. index:: task mode, building
+
+Building a Mode and Mask
+------------------------
+
+In general, a mode and its corresponding mask is built by a bitwise OR of the
+desired components. The set of valid mode constants and each mode's
+corresponding mask constant is listed below:
+
+.. list-table::
+ :class: rtems-table
+
+ * - ``RTEMS_PREEMPT``
+ - is masked by ``RTEMS_PREEMPT_MASK`` and enables preemption
+ * - ``RTEMS_NO_PREEMPT``
+ - is masked by ``RTEMS_PREEMPT_MASK`` and disables preemption
+ * - ``RTEMS_NO_TIMESLICE``
+ - is masked by ``RTEMS_TIMESLICE_MASK`` and disables timeslicing
+ * - ``RTEMS_TIMESLICE``
+ - is masked by ``RTEMS_TIMESLICE_MASK`` and enables timeslicing
+ * - ``RTEMS_ASR``
+ - is masked by ``RTEMS_ASR_MASK`` and enables ASR processing
+ * - ``RTEMS_NO_ASR``
+ - is masked by ``RTEMS_ASR_MASK`` and disables ASR processing
+ * - ``RTEMS_INTERRUPT_LEVEL(0)``
+ - is masked by ``RTEMS_INTERRUPT_MASK`` and enables all interrupts
+ * - ``RTEMS_INTERRUPT_LEVEL(n)``
+ - is masked by ``RTEMS_INTERRUPT_MASK`` and sets interrupts level n
+
+Mode values are specifically designed to be mutually exclusive, therefore
+bitwise OR and addition operations are equivalent as long as each mode appears
+exactly once in the component list. A mode component listed as a default is
+not required to appear in the mode component list, although it is a good
+programming practice to specify default components. If all defaults are
+desired, the mode ``RTEMS_DEFAULT_MODES`` and the mask ``RTEMS_ALL_MODE_MASKS``
+should be used.
+
+The following example demonstrates the mode and mask parameters used with the
+``rtems_task_mode`` directive to place a task at interrupt level 3 and make it
+non-preemptible. The mode should be set to ``RTEMS_INTERRUPT_LEVEL(3) |
+RTEMS_NO_PREEMPT`` to indicate the desired preemption mode and interrupt level,
+while the mask parameter should be set to ``RTEMS_INTERRUPT_MASK |
+RTEMS_NO_PREEMPT_MASK`` to indicate that the calling task's interrupt level and
+preemption mode are being altered.
diff --git a/c-user/task_manager.rst b/c-user/task/directives.rst
index 2db8abc..b5574e9 100644
--- a/c-user/task_manager.rst
+++ b/c-user/task/directives.rst
@@ -3,631 +3,6 @@
.. Copyright (C) 2020 embedded brains GmbH (http://www.embedded-brains.de)
.. Copyright (C) 1988, 2008 On-Line Applications Research Corporation (OAR)
-.. index:: tasks
-
-Task Manager
-************
-
-Introduction
-============
-
-The task manager provides a comprehensive set of directives to create, delete,
-and administer tasks. The directives provided by the task manager are:
-
-- rtems_task_create_ - Create a task
-
-- rtems_task_ident_ - Get ID of a task
-
-- rtems_task_self_ - Obtain ID of caller
-
-- rtems_task_start_ - Start a task
-
-- rtems_task_restart_ - Restart a task
-
-- rtems_task_delete_ - Delete a task
-
-- rtems_task_exit_ - Delete the calling task
-
-- rtems_task_suspend_ - Suspend a task
-
-- rtems_task_resume_ - Resume a task
-
-- rtems_task_is_suspended_ - Determine if a task is suspended
-
-- rtems_task_set_priority_ - Set task priority
-
-- rtems_task_get_priority_ - Get task priority
-
-- rtems_task_mode_ - Change current task's mode
-
-- rtems_task_wake_after_ - Wake up after interval
-
-- rtems_task_wake_when_ - Wake up when specified
-
-- rtems_task_get_scheduler_ - Get scheduler of a task
-
-- rtems_task_set_scheduler_ - Set scheduler of a task
-
-- rtems_task_get_affinity_ - Get task processor affinity
-
-- rtems_task_set_affinity_ - Set task processor affinity
-
-- rtems_task_iterate_ - Iterate Over Tasks
-
-Background
-==========
-
-.. index:: task, definition
-
-Task Definition
----------------
-
-Many definitions of a task have been proposed in computer literature.
-Unfortunately, none of these definitions encompasses all facets of the concept
-in a manner which is operating system independent. Several of the more common
-definitions are provided to enable each user to select a definition which best
-matches their own experience and understanding of the task concept:
-
-- a "dispatchable" unit.
-
-- an entity to which the processor is allocated.
-
-- an atomic unit of a real-time, multiprocessor system.
-
-- single threads of execution which concurrently compete for resources.
-
-- a sequence of closely related computations which can execute concurrently
- with other computational sequences.
-
-From RTEMS' perspective, a task is the smallest thread of execution which can
-compete on its own for system resources. A task is manifested by the existence
-of a task control block (TCB).
-
-.. _TaskControlBlock:
-
-Task Control Block
-------------------
-
-The Task Control Block (TCB) is an RTEMS defined data structure which contains
-all the information that is pertinent to the execution of a task. During
-system initialization, RTEMS reserves a TCB for each task configured. A TCB is
-allocated upon creation of the task and is returned to the TCB free list upon
-deletion of the task.
-
-The TCB's elements are modified as a result of system calls made by the
-application in response to external and internal stimuli. TCBs are the only
-RTEMS internal data structure that can be accessed by an application via user
-extension routines. The TCB contains a task's name, ID, current priority,
-current and starting states, execution mode, TCB user extension pointer,
-scheduling control structures, as well as data required by a blocked task.
-
-A task's context is stored in the TCB when a task switch occurs. When the task
-regains control of the processor, its context is restored from the TCB. When a
-task is restarted, the initial state of the task is restored from the starting
-context area in the task's TCB.
-
-.. index:: task memory
-
-Task Memory
------------
-
-The system uses two separate memory areas to manage a task. One memory area is
-the :ref:`TaskControlBlock`. The other memory area is allocated from the stack
-space or provided by the user and contains
-
-* the task stack,
-
-* the thread-local storage (:term:`TLS`), and
-
-* an optional architecture-specific floating-point context.
-
-The size of the thread-local storage is determined at link time. A
-user-provided task stack must take the size of the thread-local storage into
-account.
-
-On architectures with a dedicated floating-point context, the application
-configuration assumes that every task is a floating-point task, but whether or
-not a task is actually floating-point is determined at runtime during task
-creation (see :ref:`TaskFloatingPointConsiderations`). In highly memory
-constrained systems this potential overestimate of the task stack space can be
-mitigated through the :ref:`CONFIGURE_MINIMUM_TASK_STACK_SIZE` configuration
-option and aligned task stack sizes for the tasks. A user-provided task stack
-must take the potential floating-point context into account.
-
-.. index:: task name
-
-Task Name
----------
-
-By default, the task name is defined by the task object name given to
-:ref:`rtems_task_create() <rtems_task_create>`. The task name can be obtained
-with the `pthread_getname_np()
-<http://man7.org/linux/man-pages/man3/pthread_setname_np.3.html>`_ function.
-Optionally, a new task name may be set with the `pthread_setname_np()
-<http://man7.org/linux/man-pages/man3/pthread_setname_np.3.html>`_ function.
-The maximum size of a task name is defined by the application configuration
-option :ref:`CONFIGURE_MAXIMUM_THREAD_NAME_SIZE
-<CONFIGURE_MAXIMUM_THREAD_NAME_SIZE>`.
-
-.. index:: task states
-
-Task States
------------
-
-A task may exist in one of the following five states:
-
-- *executing* - Currently scheduled to the CPU
-
-- *ready* - May be scheduled to the CPU
-
-- *blocked* - Unable to be scheduled to the CPU
-
-- *dormant* - Created task that is not started
-
-- *non-existent* - Uncreated or deleted task
-
-An active task may occupy the executing, ready, blocked or dormant state,
-otherwise the task is considered non-existent. One or more tasks may be active
-in the system simultaneously. Multiple tasks communicate, synchronize, and
-compete for system resources with each other via system calls. The multiple
-tasks appear to execute in parallel, but actually each is dispatched to the CPU
-for periods of time determined by the RTEMS scheduling algorithm. The
-scheduling of a task is based on its current state and priority.
-
-.. index:: task priority
-.. index:: priority, task
-.. index:: rtems_task_priority
-
-Task Priority
--------------
-
-A task's priority determines its importance in relation to the other tasks
-executing on the same processor. RTEMS supports 255 levels of priority ranging
-from 1 to 255. The data type ``rtems_task_priority`` is used to store task
-priorities.
-
-Tasks of numerically smaller priority values are more important tasks than
-tasks of numerically larger priority values. For example, a task at priority
-level 5 is of higher privilege than a task at priority level 10. There is no
-limit to the number of tasks assigned to the same priority.
-
-Each task has a priority associated with it at all times. The initial value of
-this priority is assigned at task creation time. The priority of a task may be
-changed at any subsequent time.
-
-Priorities are used by the scheduler to determine which ready task will be
-allowed to execute. In general, the higher the logical priority of a task, the
-more likely it is to receive processor execution time.
-
-.. index:: task mode
-.. index:: rtems_task_mode
-
-Task Mode
----------
-
-A task's execution mode is a combination of the following four components:
-
-- preemption
-
-- ASR processing
-
-- timeslicing
-
-- interrupt level
-
-It is used to modify RTEMS' scheduling process and to alter the execution
-environment of the task. The data type ``rtems_task_mode`` is used to manage
-the task execution mode.
-
-.. index:: preemption
-
-The preemption component allows a task to determine when control of the
-processor is relinquished. If preemption is disabled (``RTEMS_NO_PREEMPT``),
-the task will retain control of the processor as long as it is in the executing
-state - even if a higher priority task is made ready. If preemption is enabled
-(``RTEMS_PREEMPT``) and a higher priority task is made ready, then the
-processor will be taken away from the current task immediately and given to the
-higher priority task.
-
-.. index:: timeslicing
-
-The timeslicing component is used by the RTEMS scheduler to determine how the
-processor is allocated to tasks of equal priority. If timeslicing is enabled
-(``RTEMS_TIMESLICE``), then RTEMS will limit the amount of time the task can
-execute before the processor is allocated to another ready task of equal
-priority. The length of the timeslice is application dependent and specified in
-the Configuration Table. If timeslicing is disabled (``RTEMS_NO_TIMESLICE``),
-then the task will be allowed to execute until a task of higher priority is
-made ready. If ``RTEMS_NO_PREEMPT`` is selected, then the timeslicing component
-is ignored by the scheduler.
-
-The asynchronous signal processing component is used to determine when received
-signals are to be processed by the task. If signal processing is enabled
-(``RTEMS_ASR``), then signals sent to the task will be processed the next time
-the task executes. If signal processing is disabled (``RTEMS_NO_ASR``), then
-all signals received by the task will remain posted until signal processing is
-enabled. This component affects only tasks which have established a routine to
-process asynchronous signals.
-
-.. index:: interrupt level, task
-
-The interrupt level component is used to determine which interrupts will be
-enabled when the task is executing. ``RTEMS_INTERRUPT_LEVEL(n)`` specifies that
-the task will execute at interrupt level n.
-
-.. list-table::
- :class: rtems-table
-
- * - ``RTEMS_PREEMPT``
- - enable preemption (default)
- * - ``RTEMS_NO_PREEMPT``
- - disable preemption
- * - ``RTEMS_NO_TIMESLICE``
- - disable timeslicing (default)
- * - ``RTEMS_TIMESLICE``
- - enable timeslicing
- * - ``RTEMS_ASR``
- - enable ASR processing (default)
- * - ``RTEMS_NO_ASR``
- - disable ASR processing
- * - ``RTEMS_INTERRUPT_LEVEL(0)``
- - enable all interrupts (default)
- * - ``RTEMS_INTERRUPT_LEVEL(n)``
- - execute at interrupt level n
-
-The set of default modes may be selected by specifying the
-``RTEMS_DEFAULT_MODES`` constant.
-
-.. index:: task arguments
-.. index:: task prototype
-
-Accessing Task Arguments
-------------------------
-
-All RTEMS tasks are invoked with a single argument which is specified when they
-are started or restarted. The argument is commonly used to communicate startup
-information to the task. The simplest manner in which to define a task which
-accesses it argument is:
-
-.. index:: rtems_task
-
-.. code-block:: c
-
- rtems_task user_task(
- rtems_task_argument argument
- );
-
-Application tasks requiring more information may view this single argument as
-an index into an array of parameter blocks.
-
-.. index:: floating point
-
-.. _TaskFloatingPointConsiderations:
-
-Floating Point Considerations
------------------------------
-
-Please consult the *RTEMS CPU Architecture Supplement* if this section is
-relevant on your architecture. On some architectures the floating-point context
-is contained in the normal task context and this section does not apply.
-
-Creating a task with the ``RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT`` attribute flag results in
-additional memory being allocated for the task to store the state of the numeric
-coprocessor during task switches. This additional memory is **not** allocated
-for ``RTEMS_NO_FLOATING_POINT`` tasks. Saving and restoring the context of a
-``RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT`` task takes longer than that of a
-``RTEMS_NO_FLOATING_POINT`` task because of the relatively large amount of time
-required for the numeric coprocessor to save or restore its computational state.
-
-Since RTEMS was designed specifically for embedded military applications which
-are floating point intensive, the executive is optimized to avoid unnecessarily
-saving and restoring the state of the numeric coprocessor. In uniprocessor
-configurations, the state of the numeric coprocessor is only saved when a
-``RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT`` task is dispatched and that task was not the last task
-to utilize the coprocessor. In a uniprocessor system with only one
-``RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT`` task, the state of the numeric coprocessor will never
-be saved or restored.
-
-Although the overhead imposed by ``RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT`` tasks is minimal,
-some applications may wish to completely avoid the overhead associated with
-``RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT`` tasks and still utilize a numeric coprocessor. By
-preventing a task from being preempted while performing a sequence of floating
-point operations, a ``RTEMS_NO_FLOATING_POINT`` task can utilize the numeric
-coprocessor without incurring the overhead of a ``RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT``
-context switch. This approach also avoids the allocation of a floating point
-context area. However, if this approach is taken by the application designer,
-**no** tasks should be created as ``RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT`` tasks. Otherwise, the
-floating point context will not be correctly maintained because RTEMS assumes
-that the state of the numeric coprocessor will not be altered by
-``RTEMS_NO_FLOATING_POINT`` tasks. Some architectures with a dedicated
-floating-point context raise a processor exception if a task with
-``RTEMS_NO_FLOATING_POINT`` issues a floating-point instruction, so this
-approach may not work at all.
-
-If the supported processor type does not have hardware floating capabilities or
-a standard numeric coprocessor, RTEMS will not provide built-in support for
-hardware floating point on that processor. In this case, all tasks are
-considered ``RTEMS_NO_FLOATING_POINT`` whether created as
-``RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT`` or ``RTEMS_NO_FLOATING_POINT`` tasks. A floating
-point emulation software library must be utilized for floating point
-operations.
-
-On some processors, it is possible to disable the floating point unit
-dynamically. If this capability is supported by the target processor, then
-RTEMS will utilize this capability to enable the floating point unit only for
-tasks which are created with the ``RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT`` attribute. The
-consequence of a ``RTEMS_NO_FLOATING_POINT`` task attempting to access the
-floating point unit is CPU dependent but will generally result in an exception
-condition.
-
-.. index:: task attributes, building
-
-Building a Task Attribute Set
------------------------------
-
-In general, an attribute set is built by a bitwise OR of the desired
-components. The set of valid task attribute components is listed below:
-
-.. list-table::
- :class: rtems-table
-
- * - ``RTEMS_NO_FLOATING_POINT``
- - does not use coprocessor (default)
- * - ``RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT``
- - uses numeric coprocessor
- * - ``RTEMS_LOCAL``
- - local task (default)
- * - ``RTEMS_GLOBAL``
- - global task
-
-Attribute values are specifically designed to be mutually exclusive, therefore
-bitwise OR and addition operations are equivalent as long as each attribute
-appears exactly once in the component list. A component listed as a default is
-not required to appear in the component list, although it is a good programming
-practice to specify default components. If all defaults are desired, then
-``RTEMS_DEFAULT_ATTRIBUTES`` should be used.
-
-This example demonstrates the attribute_set parameter needed to create a local
-task which utilizes the numeric coprocessor. The attribute_set parameter could
-be ``RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT`` or ``RTEMS_LOCAL | RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT``. The
-attribute_set parameter can be set to ``RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT`` because
-``RTEMS_LOCAL`` is the default for all created tasks. If the task were global
-and used the numeric coprocessor, then the attribute_set parameter would be
-``RTEMS_GLOBAL | RTEMS_FLOATING_POINT``.
-
-.. index:: task mode, building
-
-Building a Mode and Mask
-------------------------
-
-In general, a mode and its corresponding mask is built by a bitwise OR of the
-desired components. The set of valid mode constants and each mode's
-corresponding mask constant is listed below:
-
-.. list-table::
- :class: rtems-table
-
- * - ``RTEMS_PREEMPT``
- - is masked by ``RTEMS_PREEMPT_MASK`` and enables preemption
- * - ``RTEMS_NO_PREEMPT``
- - is masked by ``RTEMS_PREEMPT_MASK`` and disables preemption
- * - ``RTEMS_NO_TIMESLICE``
- - is masked by ``RTEMS_TIMESLICE_MASK`` and disables timeslicing
- * - ``RTEMS_TIMESLICE``
- - is masked by ``RTEMS_TIMESLICE_MASK`` and enables timeslicing
- * - ``RTEMS_ASR``
- - is masked by ``RTEMS_ASR_MASK`` and enables ASR processing
- * - ``RTEMS_NO_ASR``
- - is masked by ``RTEMS_ASR_MASK`` and disables ASR processing
- * - ``RTEMS_INTERRUPT_LEVEL(0)``
- - is masked by ``RTEMS_INTERRUPT_MASK`` and enables all interrupts
- * - ``RTEMS_INTERRUPT_LEVEL(n)``
- - is masked by ``RTEMS_INTERRUPT_MASK`` and sets interrupts level n
-
-Mode values are specifically designed to be mutually exclusive, therefore
-bitwise OR and addition operations are equivalent as long as each mode appears
-exactly once in the component list. A mode component listed as a default is
-not required to appear in the mode component list, although it is a good
-programming practice to specify default components. If all defaults are
-desired, the mode ``RTEMS_DEFAULT_MODES`` and the mask ``RTEMS_ALL_MODE_MASKS``
-should be used.
-
-The following example demonstrates the mode and mask parameters used with the
-``rtems_task_mode`` directive to place a task at interrupt level 3 and make it
-non-preemptible. The mode should be set to ``RTEMS_INTERRUPT_LEVEL(3) |
-RTEMS_NO_PREEMPT`` to indicate the desired preemption mode and interrupt level,
-while the mask parameter should be set to ``RTEMS_INTERRUPT_MASK |
-RTEMS_NO_PREEMPT_MASK`` to indicate that the calling task's interrupt level and
-preemption mode are being altered.
-
-Operations
-==========
-
-Creating Tasks
---------------
-
-The ``rtems_task_create`` directive creates a task by allocating a task control
-block, assigning the task a user-specified name, allocating it a stack and
-floating point context area, setting a user-specified initial priority, setting
-a user-specified initial mode, and assigning it a task ID. Newly created tasks
-are initially placed in the dormant state. All RTEMS tasks execute in the most
-privileged mode of the processor.
-
-Obtaining Task IDs
-------------------
-
-When a task is created, RTEMS generates a unique task ID and assigns it to the
-created task until it is deleted. The task ID may be obtained by either of two
-methods. First, as the result of an invocation of the ``rtems_task_create``
-directive, the task ID is stored in a user provided location. Second, the task
-ID may be obtained later using the ``rtems_task_ident`` directive. The task ID
-is used by other directives to manipulate this task.
-
-Starting and Restarting Tasks
------------------------------
-
-The ``rtems_task_start`` directive is used to place a dormant task in the ready
-state. This enables the task to compete, based on its current priority, for
-the processor and other system resources. Any actions, such as suspension or
-change of priority, performed on a task prior to starting it are nullified when
-the task is started.
-
-With the ``rtems_task_start`` directive the user specifies the task's starting
-address and argument. The argument is used to communicate some startup
-information to the task. As part of this directive, RTEMS initializes the
-task's stack based upon the task's initial execution mode and start address.
-The starting argument is passed to the task in accordance with the target
-processor's calling convention.
-
-The ``rtems_task_restart`` directive restarts a task at its initial starting
-address with its original priority and execution mode, but with a possibly
-different argument. The new argument may be used to distinguish between the
-original invocation of the task and subsequent invocations. The task's stack
-and control block are modified to reflect their original creation values.
-Although references to resources that have been requested are cleared,
-resources allocated by the task are NOT automatically returned to RTEMS. A
-task cannot be restarted unless it has previously been started (i.e. dormant
-tasks cannot be restarted). All restarted tasks are placed in the ready state.
-
-Suspending and Resuming Tasks
------------------------------
-
-The ``rtems_task_suspend`` directive is used to place either the caller or
-another task into a suspended state. The task remains suspended until a
-``rtems_task_resume`` directive is issued. This implies that a task may be
-suspended as well as blocked waiting either to acquire a resource or for the
-expiration of a timer.
-
-The ``rtems_task_resume`` directive is used to remove another task from the
-suspended state. If the task is not also blocked, resuming it will place it in
-the ready state, allowing it to once again compete for the processor and
-resources. If the task was blocked as well as suspended, this directive clears
-the suspension and leaves the task in the blocked state.
-
-Suspending a task which is already suspended or resuming a task which is not
-suspended is considered an error. The ``rtems_task_is_suspended`` can be used
-to determine if a task is currently suspended.
-
-Delaying the Currently Executing Task
--------------------------------------
-
-The ``rtems_task_wake_after`` directive creates a sleep timer which allows a
-task to go to sleep for a specified interval. The task is blocked until the
-delay interval has elapsed, at which time the task is unblocked. A task
-calling the ``rtems_task_wake_after`` directive with a delay interval of
-``RTEMS_YIELD_PROCESSOR`` ticks will yield the processor to any other ready
-task of equal or greater priority and remain ready to execute.
-
-The ``rtems_task_wake_when`` directive creates a sleep timer which allows a
-task to go to sleep until a specified date and time. The calling task is
-blocked until the specified date and time has occurred, at which time the task
-is unblocked.
-
-Changing Task Priority
-----------------------
-
-The ``rtems_task_set_priority`` directive is used to obtain or change the
-current priority of either the calling task or another task. If the new
-priority requested is ``RTEMS_CURRENT_PRIORITY`` or the task's actual priority,
-then the current priority will be returned and the task's priority will remain
-unchanged. If the task's priority is altered, then the task will be scheduled
-according to its new priority.
-
-The ``rtems_task_restart`` directive resets the priority of a task to its
-original value.
-
-Changing Task Mode
-------------------
-
-The ``rtems_task_mode`` directive is used to obtain or change the current
-execution mode of the calling task. A task's execution mode is used to enable
-preemption, timeslicing, ASR processing, and to set the task's interrupt level.
-
-The ``rtems_task_restart`` directive resets the mode of a task to its original
-value.
-
-Task Deletion
--------------
-
-RTEMS provides the ``rtems_task_delete`` directive to allow a task to delete
-itself or any other task. This directive removes all RTEMS references to the
-task, frees the task's control block, removes it from resource wait queues, and
-deallocates its stack as well as the optional floating point context. The
-task's name and ID become inactive at this time, and any subsequent references
-to either of them is invalid. In fact, RTEMS may reuse the task ID for another
-task which is created later in the application. A specialization of
-``rtems_task_delete`` is ``rtems_task_exit`` which deletes the calling task.
-
-Unexpired delay timers (i.e. those used by ``rtems_task_wake_after`` and
-``rtems_task_wake_when``) and timeout timers associated with the task are
-automatically deleted, however, other resources dynamically allocated by the
-task are NOT automatically returned to RTEMS. Therefore, before a task is
-deleted, all of its dynamically allocated resources should be deallocated by
-the user. This may be accomplished by instructing the task to delete itself
-rather than directly deleting the task. Other tasks may instruct a task to
-delete itself by sending a "delete self" message, event, or signal, or by
-restarting the task with special arguments which instruct the task to delete
-itself.
-
-Setting Affinity to a Single Processor
---------------------------------------
-
-On some embedded applications targeting SMP systems, it may be beneficial to
-lock individual tasks to specific processors. In this way, one can designate a
-processor for I/O tasks, another for computation, etc.. The following
-illustrates the code sequence necessary to assign a task an affinity for
-processor with index ``processor_index``.
-
-.. code-block:: c
-
- #include <rtems.h>
- #include <assert.h>
-
- void pin_to_processor(rtems_id task_id, int processor_index)
- {
- rtems_status_code sc;
- cpu_set_t cpuset;
- CPU_ZERO(&cpuset);
- CPU_SET(processor_index, &cpuset);
- sc = rtems_task_set_affinity(task_id, sizeof(cpuset), &cpuset);
- assert(sc == RTEMS_SUCCESSFUL);
- }
-
-It is important to note that the ``cpuset`` is not validated until the
-``rtems_task_set_affinity`` call is made. At that point, it is validated
-against the current system configuration.
-
-.. index:: rtems_task_get_note
-.. index:: rtems_task_set_note
-
-Transition Advice for Removed Notepads
----------------------------------------
-
-Task notepads and the associated directives :ref:`rtems_task_get_note` and
-:ref:`rtems_task_set_note` were removed in RTEMS 5.1. These were never
-thread-safe to access and subject to conflicting use of the notepad index by
-libraries which were designed independently.
-
-It is recommended that applications be modified to use services which are
-thread safe and not subject to issues with multiple applications conflicting
-over the key (e.g. notepad index) selection. For most applications, POSIX Keys
-should be used. These are available in all RTEMS build configurations. It is
-also possible that thread-local storage (TLS) is an option for some use cases.
-
-.. index:: rtems_task_variable_add
-.. index:: rtems_task_variable_get
-.. index:: rtems_task_variable_delete
-
-Transition Advice for Removed Task Variables
----------------------------------------------
-
-Task notepads and the associated directives :ref:`rtems_task_variable_add`,
-:ref:`rtems_task_variable_get` and :ref:`rtems_task_variable_delete` were
-removed in RTEMS 5.1. Task variables must be replaced by POSIX Keys or
-thread-local storage (TLS). POSIX Keys are available in all configurations and
-support value destructors. For the TLS support consult the :title:`RTEMS CPU
-Architecture Supplement`.
-
Directives
==========
diff --git a/c-user/task/index.rst b/c-user/task/index.rst
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..f4edd40
--- /dev/null
+++ b/c-user/task/index.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,15 @@
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: CC-BY-SA-4.0
+
+.. Copyright (C) 2020 embedded brains GmbH (http://www.embedded-brains.de)
+
+.. index:: tasks
+
+Task Manager
+************
+
+.. toctree::
+
+ introduction
+ background
+ operations
+ directives
diff --git a/c-user/task/introduction.rst b/c-user/task/introduction.rst
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..449b335
--- /dev/null
+++ b/c-user/task/introduction.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,50 @@
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: CC-BY-SA-4.0
+
+.. Copyright (C) 2020 embedded brains GmbH (http://www.embedded-brains.de)
+.. Copyright (C) 1988, 2008 On-Line Applications Research Corporation (OAR)
+
+Introduction
+============
+
+The task manager provides a comprehensive set of directives to create, delete,
+and administer tasks. The directives provided by the task manager are:
+
+- :ref:`rtems_task_create`
+
+- :ref:`rtems_task_ident`
+
+- :ref:`rtems_task_self`
+
+- :ref:`rtems_task_start`
+
+- :ref:`rtems_task_restart`
+
+- :ref:`rtems_task_delete`
+
+- :ref:`rtems_task_exit`
+
+- :ref:`rtems_task_suspend`
+
+- :ref:`rtems_task_resume`
+
+- :ref:`rtems_task_is_suspended`
+
+- :ref:`rtems_task_set_priority`
+
+- :ref:`rtems_task_get_priority`
+
+- :ref:`rtems_task_mode`
+
+- :ref:`rtems_task_wake_after`
+
+- :ref:`rtems_task_wake_when`
+
+- :ref:`rtems_task_get_scheduler`
+
+- :ref:`rtems_task_set_scheduler`
+
+- :ref:`rtems_task_get_affinity`
+
+- :ref:`rtems_task_set_affinity`
+
+- :ref:`rtems_task_iterate`
diff --git a/c-user/task/operations.rst b/c-user/task/operations.rst
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..58174d6
--- /dev/null
+++ b/c-user/task/operations.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,192 @@
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: CC-BY-SA-4.0
+
+.. Copyright (C) 2020 embedded brains GmbH (http://www.embedded-brains.de)
+.. Copyright (C) 1988, 2008 On-Line Applications Research Corporation (OAR)
+
+Operations
+==========
+
+Creating Tasks
+--------------
+
+The ``rtems_task_create`` directive creates a task by allocating a task control
+block, assigning the task a user-specified name, allocating it a stack and
+floating point context area, setting a user-specified initial priority, setting
+a user-specified initial mode, and assigning it a task ID. Newly created tasks
+are initially placed in the dormant state. All RTEMS tasks execute in the most
+privileged mode of the processor.
+
+Obtaining Task IDs
+------------------
+
+When a task is created, RTEMS generates a unique task ID and assigns it to the
+created task until it is deleted. The task ID may be obtained by either of two
+methods. First, as the result of an invocation of the ``rtems_task_create``
+directive, the task ID is stored in a user provided location. Second, the task
+ID may be obtained later using the ``rtems_task_ident`` directive. The task ID
+is used by other directives to manipulate this task.
+
+Starting and Restarting Tasks
+-----------------------------
+
+The ``rtems_task_start`` directive is used to place a dormant task in the ready
+state. This enables the task to compete, based on its current priority, for
+the processor and other system resources. Any actions, such as suspension or
+change of priority, performed on a task prior to starting it are nullified when
+the task is started.
+
+With the ``rtems_task_start`` directive the user specifies the task's starting
+address and argument. The argument is used to communicate some startup
+information to the task. As part of this directive, RTEMS initializes the
+task's stack based upon the task's initial execution mode and start address.
+The starting argument is passed to the task in accordance with the target
+processor's calling convention.
+
+The ``rtems_task_restart`` directive restarts a task at its initial starting
+address with its original priority and execution mode, but with a possibly
+different argument. The new argument may be used to distinguish between the
+original invocation of the task and subsequent invocations. The task's stack
+and control block are modified to reflect their original creation values.
+Although references to resources that have been requested are cleared,
+resources allocated by the task are NOT automatically returned to RTEMS. A
+task cannot be restarted unless it has previously been started (i.e. dormant
+tasks cannot be restarted). All restarted tasks are placed in the ready state.
+
+Suspending and Resuming Tasks
+-----------------------------
+
+The ``rtems_task_suspend`` directive is used to place either the caller or
+another task into a suspended state. The task remains suspended until a
+``rtems_task_resume`` directive is issued. This implies that a task may be
+suspended as well as blocked waiting either to acquire a resource or for the
+expiration of a timer.
+
+The ``rtems_task_resume`` directive is used to remove another task from the
+suspended state. If the task is not also blocked, resuming it will place it in
+the ready state, allowing it to once again compete for the processor and
+resources. If the task was blocked as well as suspended, this directive clears
+the suspension and leaves the task in the blocked state.
+
+Suspending a task which is already suspended or resuming a task which is not
+suspended is considered an error. The ``rtems_task_is_suspended`` can be used
+to determine if a task is currently suspended.
+
+Delaying the Currently Executing Task
+-------------------------------------
+
+The ``rtems_task_wake_after`` directive creates a sleep timer which allows a
+task to go to sleep for a specified interval. The task is blocked until the
+delay interval has elapsed, at which time the task is unblocked. A task
+calling the ``rtems_task_wake_after`` directive with a delay interval of
+``RTEMS_YIELD_PROCESSOR`` ticks will yield the processor to any other ready
+task of equal or greater priority and remain ready to execute.
+
+The ``rtems_task_wake_when`` directive creates a sleep timer which allows a
+task to go to sleep until a specified date and time. The calling task is
+blocked until the specified date and time has occurred, at which time the task
+is unblocked.
+
+Changing Task Priority
+----------------------
+
+The ``rtems_task_set_priority`` directive is used to obtain or change the
+current priority of either the calling task or another task. If the new
+priority requested is ``RTEMS_CURRENT_PRIORITY`` or the task's actual priority,
+then the current priority will be returned and the task's priority will remain
+unchanged. If the task's priority is altered, then the task will be scheduled
+according to its new priority.
+
+The ``rtems_task_restart`` directive resets the priority of a task to its
+original value.
+
+Changing Task Mode
+------------------
+
+The ``rtems_task_mode`` directive is used to obtain or change the current
+execution mode of the calling task. A task's execution mode is used to enable
+preemption, timeslicing, ASR processing, and to set the task's interrupt level.
+
+The ``rtems_task_restart`` directive resets the mode of a task to its original
+value.
+
+Task Deletion
+-------------
+
+RTEMS provides the ``rtems_task_delete`` directive to allow a task to delete
+itself or any other task. This directive removes all RTEMS references to the
+task, frees the task's control block, removes it from resource wait queues, and
+deallocates its stack as well as the optional floating point context. The
+task's name and ID become inactive at this time, and any subsequent references
+to either of them is invalid. In fact, RTEMS may reuse the task ID for another
+task which is created later in the application. A specialization of
+``rtems_task_delete`` is ``rtems_task_exit`` which deletes the calling task.
+
+Unexpired delay timers (i.e. those used by ``rtems_task_wake_after`` and
+``rtems_task_wake_when``) and timeout timers associated with the task are
+automatically deleted, however, other resources dynamically allocated by the
+task are NOT automatically returned to RTEMS. Therefore, before a task is
+deleted, all of its dynamically allocated resources should be deallocated by
+the user. This may be accomplished by instructing the task to delete itself
+rather than directly deleting the task. Other tasks may instruct a task to
+delete itself by sending a "delete self" message, event, or signal, or by
+restarting the task with special arguments which instruct the task to delete
+itself.
+
+Setting Affinity to a Single Processor
+--------------------------------------
+
+On some embedded applications targeting SMP systems, it may be beneficial to
+lock individual tasks to specific processors. In this way, one can designate a
+processor for I/O tasks, another for computation, etc.. The following
+illustrates the code sequence necessary to assign a task an affinity for
+processor with index ``processor_index``.
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ #include <rtems.h>
+ #include <assert.h>
+
+ void pin_to_processor(rtems_id task_id, int processor_index)
+ {
+ rtems_status_code sc;
+ cpu_set_t cpuset;
+ CPU_ZERO(&cpuset);
+ CPU_SET(processor_index, &cpuset);
+ sc = rtems_task_set_affinity(task_id, sizeof(cpuset), &cpuset);
+ assert(sc == RTEMS_SUCCESSFUL);
+ }
+
+It is important to note that the ``cpuset`` is not validated until the
+``rtems_task_set_affinity`` call is made. At that point, it is validated
+against the current system configuration.
+
+.. index:: rtems_task_get_note
+.. index:: rtems_task_set_note
+
+Transition Advice for Removed Notepads
+---------------------------------------
+
+Task notepads and the associated directives :ref:`rtems_task_get_note` and
+:ref:`rtems_task_set_note` were removed in RTEMS 5.1. These were never
+thread-safe to access and subject to conflicting use of the notepad index by
+libraries which were designed independently.
+
+It is recommended that applications be modified to use services which are
+thread safe and not subject to issues with multiple applications conflicting
+over the key (e.g. notepad index) selection. For most applications, POSIX Keys
+should be used. These are available in all RTEMS build configurations. It is
+also possible that thread-local storage (TLS) is an option for some use cases.
+
+.. index:: rtems_task_variable_add
+.. index:: rtems_task_variable_get
+.. index:: rtems_task_variable_delete
+
+Transition Advice for Removed Task Variables
+---------------------------------------------
+
+Task notepads and the associated directives :ref:`rtems_task_variable_add`,
+:ref:`rtems_task_variable_get` and :ref:`rtems_task_variable_delete` were
+removed in RTEMS 5.1. Task variables must be replaced by POSIX Keys or
+thread-local storage (TLS). POSIX Keys are available in all configurations and
+support value destructors. For the TLS support consult the :title:`RTEMS CPU
+Architecture Supplement`.